SUPPLEMENT TO THE PUNJAB  DISTRICT 

 

GAZETTEERS

                                       

 

GURDASPUR

                                                     


TABLE OF  CONTENTS

 

Chapter                                                                                Pages

 

CHAPTER I-  GENERAL                                                                                      1

 

CHAPTER  II – HISTORY                                                                    13

 

CHAPTER III--  PEOPLE                                                                                      30

 

CHAPTER IV --  AGRICULTURE AND IRRIGTION                                     37

 

CHAPTER V-- INDUSTRIES                                                                                46

 

CHAPTER VI _  BANKING , TRADE AND COMMERCE                             52

 

CHAPTER  VII – COMMUNICTIONS                                                                68

 

CHAPTER IX – ECONOMIC TRENDS                                                              94

 

CHAPTER XI – REVENUE ADMINSTRATION                                              109

 

CHAPTER XII-        LAW, ORDER AND JUSTICE                                         119

 

CHAPTER  XIV—LOCAL , SELF –GOVERNMENT                                      135

 

CHAPTER XV-  EDUCTION AND CULTURE                                                 142

 

CHAPTER XVI --  MEDICAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES            149

 

CHAPTER XVII-  OTHER SOCIAL SERVICES                                              166

 

CHAPTER  XVIII—PUBLIC LIFE AND VOLUNTARY SOCIAL                178

SERVICE ORGANISTIONS

 


 CHAPTER -  I

 

GENERAL

 

Total Area and Population of the District :-  Accroding to the Surveryor General of India,  the area of the Gurdaspur District in 1981 was 3, 562 sq. km . In area, the district ranked 9th amongst the district of the State.

According to 1981 Census,  the total population of the district was 15,13,435 Person (7, 93, 484 males  and 7, 19, 951 females), which ranked 5th in the State.

Administrative Division of the District :- The district consist of 3 tahsils/ subdivision viz Gurdaspur, Pathankot, Batala. Besides there are 6 sub –tehlis viz. Kalanaur, Dhar Kalan, Narot Jaimal Singh, Bamyal, Qudian and Dera Baba Nanak. There ars 13 development block in the district viz. Gurdaspur, Kalanaur, Dhariwal, Dinanagar, Kahnuwan, Pathankot, Dhar Kalan,  Bamyal, Batala,  Fatahgarh Churian,  Dera Baba Nanak,  Sri Hargobindpur and Narot Jaimal  Singh.

Boundary Changes :-The change in the jurisdiction of the district since the publication of the last Gurdaspur District Gazetteer (1979) was  limited to the addition of only one village Dathana of Dasua Tehsil of  Hoshiarpur District to Gurdaspur Tehsil  of the district in 1979.

                                               

Climate

 

(1)               Climate Division and Seasons and Their Duration:-The climate of this submontaneous district is somewhat  milder than that of the neighbouring  district  to the south.  The year may be divided into four seasons.  The cold seasons. The cold season is from November to March. The period from April to June is the summer season. The south –west monsoon season which follow,  continues  upto about the first week of September.  The succeeding period till the beginning of November is the post –monsoon or transition season.

                                               

(2)               Temperature and humidity

Temperatuer :- There is a meteorological  observatory in the district at Pathankot . The record of this observatory may be taken as representative of the condition in the district. from obout the beginning of March, there is steady increase in the temperatures till June which is generally the hottest month. The mean daily maximum temperature in june is 40 .2'c and the mean daily minimum 26.1'c On individual days, during the summer,  day temperature reach over 44'c. With the onset of the south-west monsoon in the district early in july,  there is be appreciable drop in the day temperature,  but the nights continue to be as warm as nights in the latter part of the summer.  When the south –west monsoon withdraws early in September,  but the nights become progressively cooler. After October, both day and night temperature decrease rapidly. Jaunary is generally the coldest month with the mean daily maximum at 18.4'c and the mean daily maximum at 5.6'c. In association with the passage of western disturbance during the winter,  cold waves affect the district and the minimum temperature on such occasion may go down up to the freezing point water.

The highest maximum temperature  recorded at Pathankot during the brief period of about a decade for which record are available was 46.1'c on 1960 june 11and the lowest minimum 0c on 1956 january 21.

Humiditi :- Except during the brief south –west monsoon season when the relative humidities  are the over 70 per cent,  the air is generally dry.   The driest part of year is the summer season,  when in the plains the relative humidities in the afternoon are less than about 30 per cent .

Table 1 gives normals of temperature and relative humidity during the different month of the year in Gurdaspur District :


 

 

TABLE 1

Normals of Temperature and Humidity (Pathankot)

 

 

 

 

 

HigherMaximum ever recroded

Lowest  Minimum ever recorded

Relative Humidity Hours

Month

MaenDaily  Maximum Temperature 'C

Mean Daily Minimum Temperature 'C

'C

Date

 

'C

Date

 

0830

1730

January

18.4

5.6

26.1

1952 January

23

0.0

1956 January

21

84

61

February

22.2

8.4

29.4

1956 February

28

3.3

1959 February

6

74

46

March

27.1

13.5

35.2

1958 March

28

6.1

1954 March

5

56

40

April

33.5

17.9

41.7

1958 April

27

7.2

1955 April

17

34

24

May

39.0

23.2

44.4

1952 May

28

12.2

1955 May

12

25

19

June

40.2

26.1

46.1

1960 June

11

18.3

1957 June

4

35

28

July

34.1

25.0

43.4

1957 July

5

17.2

1955

July

20

75

61

August

32.5

24.0

36.2

1957 August

24

18.9

1952 August

28

82

70

September

32.8

22.4

36.7

1952 September

12

15.6

1953 September

17

74

63

October

30.8

16.9

36.7

1952 October

2

10.6

1955 October

4

60

52

November

25.9

9.8

32.2

1952 November

1

5.6

1955 November

8

60

49

December

21.1

6.9

27.2

1959 December

5

1.1

1955 December

24

75

58

Annual

29.8

16.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

61

48

Hours I.S.T.                                                                                                       (Sou rce: Additional Direc tor General of Meteorology  (Research) Pune)

 


                                                           

(3)   Rainfall

Record of raingall in the district are available for 8 station, for sufficiently long period .. The details of the rainfall at these station and for the district as a whole are given in Table 2 and 3. The average annual rainfall in district is 1106.0 mm. The rainfall in the district is greater in the submontane north –eastern part and decreases rapidly towards the south –West. The rainfall varies from 1590.0 mm at Malikpur to 729.6mm at Batala. About 70 per cent of annual rainfall in the district is received during the period July to September. The district received some rainfall in June mostly in the from of thunder –showers and during the cold season in association with passing western disturbances. The variation in the rainfall from year  to year is appreciable. In the 80-per period, 1901 to 1980, the highest annual rainfall amounting to 153 per cent of the normal occurred in 1955. the lowest annual rainfall which was 42 per cent of the normal occurred in 1902.  In the same period, the annual rainfall in the district was less than 80 per cent of the normal in 28 years,  two consecutive years of such low rainfall occurred five times and three consecutive year occurred once in this period. It will be seen from Table 2 that the annual rainfall in the district was between 701 and 1200 mm in 52 years out of 80.

On an average,  there are 48 rainy days (i,e days with rainfall of 2.5 mm or more ). This number varies from 35 at Batala to 58 at Malikpur as shown in Table 3.  

The heaviest rainfall in 24 hours recorded at any station in the district was 495, 3 mm at Aliwal on 5 October 1955.

The monthly average rainfall in Gurdaspur District,  During 1972,   1977 and 1982 to1987 is given in Table 4.   

                                               

 

 

 

 

 

 


GENERAL

TABLE 2

Frequency of Annual Rainfall in the District

( Date 1901- 80)

 

Range in mm

No. of year

401-500

1

501-600

1

601-700

6

701-800

12

801-900

9

901-1000

13

1001-1100

10

1101-1200

8

1201-1300

4

1301-1400

4

1401-1500

3

1501-1600

4

1601-1700

5

(Source: Additional Director General of Meteorology (Research),    Pune)

 


 

                                                                        Table 3

 

                        Normal and Extremes of Rainfall in the Gurdaspur District

 

Station

No.of Yeat of Date

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Annual

Higest Annual reinfall as / of normal and year**

Lowest annual rainfull as / of normal and year **

Heaviest rainfall in 24 hours*

 

Amount

(mm)

Date

Batala

73

(a)

 

(b)

38.6

 

2.5

31.3

 

2.4

 

34.9

 

 

2.6

14.8

 

1.4

12.1

 

1.3

44.6

 

2.7

210.7

 

8.2

200.5

 

8.1

96.9

 

 

3.3

23.2

 

 

0.7

4.7

 

 

0.4

17.3

 

1.2

729.5

 

34.8

209

 

 

(1976)

29

 

 

(1965)

474.5

 

 

1955 October 5

Tidri

72(a)

 

(b)

 

53.9

 

3.0

43.0

 

2.9

48.8

 

 

2.9

22.9

 

1.6

16.3

 

1.5

55.6

 

3.1

286.7

 

9.9

 

 

260.1

 

9.7

117.4

 

4.0

27.3

 

 

0.9

6.5

 

 

0.5

24.2

 

1.5

962.7

 

41.5

228

 

 

(1950)

49

 

 

(1918)

385.6

 

 

1950

 

 

September 4

Pathankot

67 (a)

65.1

62.6

50.9

25.1

18.5

56.8

351.9

358.6

152.4

28.5

5.9

29.2

1205.5

163

43

249.1

1894

 

(b)

3.8

3.6

3.3

2.1

1.6

3.8

12.5

13.1

5.4

1.3

0.5

1.9

52.9

(1917)

(1902)

 

June 19

Malikpur

23 (a)

 

(b_

100.2

 

4.7

71.3

 

3.8

78.8

 

4.3

36.1

 

2.8

28.1

 

2.0

71.3

 

3.5

444.9

 

12.8

436.1

 

12.7

210.0

 

6.7

57.5

 

2,2

14.3

 

0.9

41.4

 

1.9

1590.0

58.3

184

 

(1967)

50

 

(1952)

298.4

1963

 

August 20

Pathankot Aero .obsy

23(a)

 

 

(b)

54.0

 

 

3.3

51.8

 

 

3.4

55.9

 

 

3.7

19.3

 

 

2.0

22.5

 

 

1.8

 

84.5

 

 

4.6

425.1

 

 

12.8

395.3

 

 

12.7

140.0

 

 

6.4

15.1

 

 

1.0

13.7

 

 

1.1

89.0

 

 

2.1

1316.2

 

54.9

148

 

 

(1959)

44

 

 

(1902)

355.0

1980

 

 

July 14

Aliwal

63(a)

 

(b)

40.7

 

2.9

32.6

 

2.7

36.2

 

2.8

16.1

 

1.7

12.5

 

1.2

41.1

 

3.0

223.5

 

8.7

213.2

 

8.3

100.6

 

3.5

25.7

 

0.8

 

6.4

 

0.5

21.1

 

1.5

769.7

 

37.6

211

 

(1961)

43

 

(1918)

495.3

1955

 

October 5

Gurdaspur

73(a)

 

(b)

49.3

 

3.1

42.7

 

3.1

44.5

 

 

3.1

20.0

 

1.7

16.1

 

1.5

59.8

 

3.3

269.4

 

10.3

256.5

 

9.9

116.2

 

4.3

26.4

 

 

1.0

5.3

 

 

0.6

22.8

 

1.6

929.0

 

43.5

167

 

 

(1955)

44

 

 

(1902)

370.3

1955

October 5

Madhopur

71(a)

 

(b)

73.4

 

4.2

67.1

 

3.8

57.6

 

 

3.8

28.7

 

2.5

22.8

 

2.0

57.7

 

3.8

388.0

 

13.4

420.2

 

14.3

156.1

 

5.8

27.2

 

 

1.3

8.5

 

 

0.7

37.4

 

2.1

1344.7

57.7

165

 

 

(1917)

42

 

 

(1902)

351.0

1955 October 5

 Gurdaspur

(a)

 

(b)

59.4

 

3.4

50.3

 

3.2

50.9

 

3.3

22.9

 

2.0

18.6

 

1.6

58.9

 

3.5

325.0

 

11.1

317.0

 

11.1

136.2

 

4.9

28.9

 

 

1.1

8.2

 

 

0.7

29.1

 

1.7

1106.0

 

47.6

153

 

(1955)

 

 

 

(Source :-Additional Director General Mateorology (Research ),   Pune


 

 

Table 4

 

Monthly Average Rainfall in Gurdaspur   District  During 1972,1977and 1982 to 1987 (in centimeters )

Year

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Total

1972

5.29

8.35

3.62

1.34

0.00

2.10

24.48

20.67

2.75

0.42

1.36

1.12

71.60

1977

9.52

___

0.05

5.78

4.48

8.88

44.01

35.44

6.04

0.52

0.10

6.27

121.09

1982

5.20

5.00

4.60

2.30

1.80

5.50

27.10

26.80

11.70

1.30

0.60

2.70

94.60

1983

9.74

8.67

7.60

20.68

5.66

3.99

16.60

18.67

11.86

1.21

___

0.12

104.80

1984

0.98

7.55

4.44

1.20

0.55

8.32

31.06

29.50

13.50

0.45

____

2.46

100.01

1985

1.77

0.36

0.23

2.40

0.95

3.16

32.46

32.16

6.21

14.32

0.02

6.68

100.72

1986

51.9

49.7

45.6

22.9

17.5

55.0

271.2

267.9

117.3

13.1

5.5

26.6

944.2

1987

29.8

75.1

39.7

32.0

113.1

26.4

92.4

154.1

60.5

53.8

___

4.4

681.8

(Statistical Abstracts of Punjab, 1973, 1978 and 1983 to 1988)

 

           

(4)   Atmostpheric Pressure and Winds

 

Cloudiness :- the skies are partly to heavily clouded and occassionally over-cast during the south–west monsoon season and for brief spells of two or three days in the cold season in association with passing western disturbances.   During the rest of  the year ,the skies are generally clear or light clouded.

 

Winds :- Winds are generally light with some strengthening in force in summer and the early part of the monsoon season . In the post monsoon and cold season ,winds are light and variable in direction in the morings and mostly from west or north –west in the afternoon.   Winds are mainly from direction between north –west and north –east in the mornings and between west and north –east in the afternoons in April and may  By June easterlies and south – easterlies begins to blow and in the south –west monsoon season,  which are commonly from direction between  north –east and south-east.

 

Special Weather Phenomena :- Western  distrurbances affect the weather over the district during during  the cold season causing wide – spread rain and gusty winds. Thunder storms occur in the summer and monsoon season. Dust storms occur in the latter part of the summer season. Occasional fogs occur in the cold season, their frequency being more in the hills and valleys in the northern part of the district.

 Table 5and 6 gives the mean wind speed and special weather phenomena for Pathankot :  

 

Table 5

Mean Wind Speed in km/hr

 

(PATHANKOT)

 

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Annual

5.7

6.4

8.8

9.9

11.8

10.9

 

9.0

6.8

6.9

5.7

6.1

5.1

7.8

(Source : Additional  Director General  of Meterology (Research),  Pune)

 

Table 6

Special Weather Phenomena

 

( Pathankot)

Mean No of Days

Jaunary

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Annual

 

Thunder

1.3

0.7

2

3

3

3

5

5

3

0.7

0.3

1.0

28

Hali

0.1

0.1

0

0.1

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.5

Dust Storm

0.1

0.1

0.8

0.7

3

3

0.1

0.0

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.0

8

Squall

0.0

0.0

0.4

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.9

Fog

0.5

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.6

                       

 

 

 

                                   


CHAPTER    II

HISTORY

(a)               Ancient period

            The whole of Punjab imcluding the area of Gurdaspur District was of the Indus Valley Civilization.   It is worthwise to mention here that Harappa and Mohenjodaro are the sites where remain of the Indus Valley Civilization have been found extensively.  Harappa is situated in the Montgomery District of Pakistan.  It was larger than Mohenjodaro possible metropolis of great people.  Mohenjodaro which means in Sindhi ‘The Place of the deal ' is situated about 40 km  south of Larkana District in middle Sindh (Pakistan).  it lies more than 600 km south –west of Harappa.  Traces of the selfsame people as at Harappa and mohenjodaro have been detected in Gurdaspur District at the following places:-

 

Serial No

Name of the Village

Name of the Tehsil

1

Jakria

Gurdaspur

2

Gurdas Nangal

Do

3

Guria

Do

4

Jaura Chhitran

Do

5

Kahuwan

Do

6

Kalanour

Do

7

Balaggan

Do

8

Godder

Do

9

Bhakhariwal

Do

10

Machhrala

Do

11

Lohgarh

Do

12

Shahpur

Do

13

Chhin Bhatti

Do

14

Chuhar Chak

Do

15

Paniar

Do

16

Niwan Dhakala

Do

17

Dadwan

Do

18

Haripur

Do

19

Kandiala

Batala

20

Bijliwal

Do

21

Dala Chak

Do

22

Dera Baba Nanak

Do

23

Hardo Rawal

Do

24

Wadala Granthia

Do

25

Veroke

Do

26

Bhagtana Boharwala

Do

27

Mari Panuwan

Do

28

Male wal

Do

29

Machhrai

Do

30

Loharanwali

Do

31

Rahimabad

Do

32

Rampur

Do

33

Bhiwani

Do

 

 

1 B.B. Lal S.P Gupta , Frontiers of the Indus Civilization,  pp 521 – 526 and Madhubala, Prachin Punjab Di Sanskriti (Delhi, 1990),  p. 103                                                                                        

 

From the above evidence,  it has been established now that whole of Gurdaspur District was a part of the vast area covered under Indus valley Civilization during the early period of history.  This civilization developed  prior to the Aryan Civilization in this region .even in ancient times, trade was o primary factor in the urban development of societies.  the Indus valley Civilization also flourished with the growth of trade by overland and sea-routes .It has been proved by the discovery of various seals from the ancient sites.

 

The  Indus valley Civilization of which Gurdaspur district was a part, constitutes indeed the oldest example yet known of systematic town planning.  Board streets from south to north were crossed by other at right angles,  and the block thus formed were subdivided by lanes   parallel or at right angles to the arterial street. The house of these people were of appreciable size with adequate arrangement of sanitation.

The people of the Indus valley Civilization had built grand cities and highly developed culture life.  Cotton and woolen fabrics were in common use,  ornaments were worn by both men and women, beautiful pottery was produced and the sculptor’s technique was well developed. The carpenter, the mason ,the blacksmith,  the goldsmith, the jeweler, the  stone cutter and the ivory workers had a flourishing  trade.  A large number of terra-cotas represent cattle normally humped  bulls although the short horn and the buffalos also occur.Strangely  . cows are never represented. A large number of seals and tables found from various sites, have introduced example of tbe pictographic script  which still constitutes one of the major mysteries of the Indus Civilization. It has not as yet been deciphered.

The people of the Indus Valley Civilization followed some organized reglion. Religion association of bathing or purificatory   importance of the water is to be traced to the people of moh njodaro and Harappa  as can be inferred from the discovery of the great bath. The tradition of the scared tree,piple goes back to them .In historic Buddhism ,it come to be venerated as the holy Bodhi tree.  The beginning of making images of scared character may also be traced to Indus Civilization; numerous image of of female figurines, obviously  of religion nature have been found in the Indus ruins. Many example of   ling and yoni have been found in the Indus antiquities.  Some animal such as the lion, elephant, bull and   rhinoceros, seem to have had religion or symbolic significance  among the citizen of Mohenjordaro and Harappa . The bull is frequently and realistically portrayed on seal . It has been established that the people of Indus Valley Civilization used to worship the Mother Goddess and Pashupati  (Shiva).

 

 From the excavation and exploration of the sites of Indus Valley people,  it is apparent that these people  had  achieved a remarkable degree of proficiency in sanitation and town planning . These ancient people had the amenities of a developed city life.

 

The rock-temple at Mukeshwar on the Ravi about eight Kilometers above shahpur kandi are fine specimens of antiquities. These are said to date back to the times of pandavas. Stories are told of Arjun ‘s and Draurpadi visit to the place ; a long cleft in the rock a little way up the river is known

  ‘ Arjun’ s Chula ‘ Alexander Cunningham  indentified  that the  tribe called Udumbras had also its habitation on the River Ravi in Gurdaspur District .

Gurdaspur, along with is neighbouring District, was the scene of the exploits of Alexander, who had come as far as the river beas in his grand design of word conquenst.  Alexander was engaged in grim struggle with the Kathaians at Sangala ,which is located near Fatehgarh in the Gurdaspur District. King Poros arrived with his army and elephants and tited the scales of Alexander’s favour.

 

The last camp of Alexander before he commenced his return march is supposed to have been on the bank of the river Beas, Probably in this district. But all trace of the twelve enormous alter of hewn stone, which he is supposed to have left on the spot, have unfort untately been irretrievably lost.

 

The authority of Alexander retreated with him every where shadow.  As the semblance of Alexander’s influence was fading and flagging away .the vast mass of displaced  mercenaries,  decrepit  armies,  infuriated rebels and upstart adventurers of the Punjab was being channelised and organized by Chandargputa Maurya and Chanakya into a tremendous imperial movement which swept up to Pataliputra in the east and resulted in the creation of the first unified Indian empire known to history .  

 

   The weak successors of Ashoka Maurya could not retian the region. The Greeks of Bactria invadad  and occupied the Punjab in the second  century B.C About 150 B.C , Demetrius overran  Madhyemika,  modern Manjher or the upper part of Bari Boad, Then Followed a series of foreign in roads by Sakas , Kushans, Huns, etc.

In the 6th Century AD arose the great Kingdom of Thanesar under Harshavardhana  which included only the Punjab east of the River Jhelum.

On the basis of remains, the modern archaeologists believe  that Chhina Patti in Gurdaspur District was a colony of the Chines . it is also believed that  Hiuen Tsang  who visited India during the reign of Narshavardhana also stayed  here for some time .

                                                           

Medieval Period

 

1001 AD to  1019 AD ..  From the later half of the tenth century upto 1019,the District of  Gurdaspur was included in the Shahi Kingdom of the Punjab under Jayapal (1001-1012 AD ) and Trilochanpal Anangpal (1012-1019 AD ). Shahi Kingdom was extended from the Indus to Lamghan on the one side and from Kashmir to Multan on the other

.

1019 AD               ..    On the death of Trilochanpal and the flight of his  son  Bhimpal from the reigon,  the entire Shahi kingdom formed part of the dominions of Sultan Mathmud of Ghanzi .

1325 AD               ..    Nam Dev (1270-1350) a saint  belonging to Maharashtra visited Gurdaspur District when he was about fifty –five year of age . He settled of Ghuman and is supposed to have died here  . A temple in his memory has been built at this place .

 

1353 AD               .. Firoz Shah Tughlaq, a great canal constructor visited Kalanaur in 1353 on hunting excursion,  Kalanour was the mast important town in the district during the period of Delhi Emperors.

 

1422 AD               .. Kalanour was attacked by Jasrath  Khokhar.

 

1428 AD               .. Jasrath Khokhar made anthor attack on kalanour .

 

1472 AD               .. Balala was founded by Rai Ram Deo,  a Bhatti Rajput From Kapurthala,  during   the time of  Bahlol Khan Lodhi.

 

1485 AD               .. Guru Nanak Dev Ji was married with Sulakni,  daughter of Mul Chand, a Khatri of Pakhoke ( Dera Baba Nanak ) in the Batala  Tehsil in the Gurdaspur District . The marriage was solemnized at Batala .

 

1539 AD               .. Guru Nanak Dev Ji seems to have lived a great deal at Pakhoke ( now  Known as Dera BaBa Nanak ),  the village of his wife and eventually  died in 1539 at Kartarpur on the opposite bank of the River Ravi ( in Pakistan ) . It was there  the celebrated dispute occurred between Hindu and Muhammadan followers as to whether his body should be burnt or buried,  which  was solved by the body itself disappearing.

 

15 February1556       .. it was at Kashmir that Akbar was installed by Bairam Khan on a takht ( throne ) on 15 February 1556,  Immediately  when Akbar received the news of his father ,s death

.

1605-1658             .. The Emperor Jahangir visited Kahnuwan and Pindori during this  period .

 

                             

1627-1658                   During the reign  of Emperor Shah Jahan, the sixth Guru HargobindJi founded Sri Hargobind pur and stayed here for sometime. In 1639,  Ali Mardan Khan,  the celebrated Enginner ,began the construction of the Shsh Nahar to carry the water of the River Ravi to royal garden of Shalimar near Lahore (Pakistan ) . Ala-ul- Mulk  remodelled  and completed the work and wihin the Gurdaspur District at least the alignment was closely followed,  not only by the Sikh rulers in constructing the Hasli Canal but also by British engineers in laying out Bari Doab canal . Baba Lal Ji who is said to have lived in the time of the Emperor Shah Jahan,  founded the well-known to the left of the road from Batala to Dera Baba Nanak . Dara Shikoh to visit Dhianpur to have frequent  religious  disputation with the saint Lal Ji

 

1708                            .. On being commissioned by Guru Gobind Singh from Deccen to the Punjab in 1708 to punish those who had persecuted the Sikh and murdered  his father and innocent children,  Banda Bahadur used this district as a base from where he raided the countery upto Lahore .

 

1711                            .. Banda Bahadur began to extend his influence in the direction of Gurdaspur District. The Sikhs overran the towns of Raipur and Bahrampur and advanced towards the parganas of kalanaur and Batala . On his way to Lahore ,the emperor  Bahadur Shah (1707 -1712) crossed the River Beas at the fort of Sri Hargobindpur (Rahilla) on 23 June .A haltb was made at the town of  Kahnuwan on 17 July at Kalanaur on 29July and Chamiari on 30 July reaching Lahore on 11 August 1711.  He came to pursue Banda Bahadur who had fled towards the Hills of Jammu .

 

1712-1713                   .. The years 1712 and 1713 were the most unfavourable to the Sikh . Thousand of them were captured and put to death . The decline  of the Sikh power and persecution of the  Sikhs gave an impetus to those in power,  all over the country,  to persecute them remorselesaly .

 

27 March 1714..         Jagat Singh with a detachment alongwith his brothers and servants ,fell upon the village Kiri Afghanan ( kitri Pathaaan ) in the pargana of Kahnuawan and entered the garhi or fortress of the scuffle .Booty worth about sixth thousand,  in cash and in kind belonging to the residents of the village and those of the neighbouring  village fell into the hands of the Sikhs.

 

1715                            .. In the beginning of 1715 after about fifteen month’ sojourn iin the Jammu Hills, Banda reappeared in the plains from the direction of Jammu and marched toward kalanaur.   Kalanaur fell into the hands of the Sikhs .Banda next marched toward Batala .its faujdar , Sheikh Muhammand Dayam ,came out to encounter the Sikh force . A bloody battle was fought   for about six  hours ,and there was great bloodshed on  both sides. Many among from the nobility of Batala were killed . None of the Zamindars and commander could resist the Sikhs in the  field  of battle . Batala and its neighbourhood  were occupied by the Sikhs .

 

17 December 1715     . Banda Bahadur and his soldiers were made prisoner by the mughal  force at the mud fort of Gurdas Nangal  about 6km to the south –west of the  town of Gurdaspur.

 

1730 ..                         Dianangar was founded by Adina Beg on the banks of the hasli or Shah Nadar as his residence and  cantonment. He seems to have exercised his government mainly from that town.

 

 

1738                            The invasion    . of   Nader Shah in 1738 dis-organised  the Gurdaspur and Government and  aggression of the Sikhs Increased enabling them to occupy more territory in the  district .

 

1746                            First Ghalughara ( Holocaust ) took place . A hug army consisting of mughal troops and auxiliaries drawn from all over the country ,marched against the Sikhs under the personal command of yahiya Khan ,the Governor  of Lohare (1745-1747) and his diwan Lakhpat Rai . The Sikhs about fifteen thousand in number ,had taken refuge in the reedy . marshes of Kahnuwan . They were  over powered by the enemy and thousand of them were killed .

 

1758                                                        .. Adina Beg died at Batala .The Death of  Adina Beg removed  the main check on the growing power of the Sikhs,   and they soon spread over the country

 

1808                                          The power of ramgarhia  sikha missal in the district was broken in by Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

 

 

1811                ..          The power of  Kanhaya Misal was broken by Maharaja Ranjit Sing1811.

    

 

May 1838     .             Macnaghten Mission on thr subject  of the proposed alliance with the object  of placing Shah Shuja on the throne of Kabul ,was received at Dinanagar by Maharaja Ranjit Singh . Dinanagar was a favourite summer residence of the  Lion of the Punjab .

 

                                                                             (c)   British Role

 

1849                                .. After annexation of Punjab to the British territory in April 1849 , a new

District of Adinaagar was constituted with Dinanagar as its headquartera. Gurdaspur Tehsil, a greater portion of the Batala Tesil and 181 village of Pathankot Tehsil were included in the Adinanagar district .

 

.

July 1849      .. In July ,the civil and military escort were transferred to Batala as Dinanagar was thought unhealthy .                                                     

 

1851                The abolition of female infanticide was one of the important social welfare measures adopted by the British The Deputy Commissioner, Gurdaspur brought to the notice of the Government that the Bedis Killed their female off springs and were known as Kureemars ( girl slayers) .  The matter was immediately taken in  hand and all the Deputy Commissioners in the Punjab were directed to send details reports on the prevalence of this crime in their areas . In due course ,the crime of female infanticide almost vanished in the district .

1852                                    The Shahpur Kandi tract was transferred from Kangra to this District The District officers were  shifted to Gurdaspur on 1 May 1852 and the crime of the district and treasury was finally altered from that of Adinanagar to Gurdaspur.   

 

1857                . To meet the situation of great uprising of 1857, precautionary measure     were   taken by james Naesmyth, Deputy Commissioner, Gurdaspur. The first step              to meet the situation was to ensure the regular , accurate and direct  communication  of intelligence from each  outpost of the district as to the State of feeling etc. in the neighbourhood . The police were further enjoined at once to arrest any agitator or suspicious person or persons who might be disseminating or stirring up redellion.

.

                        On 20 May 1857 ,a treasure of nearly rupees seven  lakhs was removed to the fort of Gurdaspur at Amritsar .

 

                                                                                                                                     

1857                . On 3 June 1857, a feeling of still greater security was created at Gurdaspur  by the dismissal of the detachment of the 59 Native Infantry to join its headquarters  at Amritsar

.

The rebellions of 1857 in the district were curshed mercilessly .

 

During the first week in August ,a remnant, numbering about 25 men of the 26th Native  Infantry from Lohare, found their way  into the swamps of this district. They were all killed by a party of the new  levy under Garbett and Hanna of the canal Department and by a separate little party of the  2nd

Irregular Cavalry under Major Jackson,   who was seriously  wonnded.

 

1861                      .Raja Teja Singh‘S Jagir was consolidated in the south –west of the Batala Tehsi and his headquarters  were fixed at that town and a considerable Jurisdiction over the jagir villages was conferred on him with the title of Raja of Batala.  

 

 

December 1862  . A new tehsil was formed at Qudian on the death of the Raja of Batal  December 1862 . The lagir was resumed and the former tehsil  Batala was reconsitituted .

           

April 1867      ..     Batala  tehsil was transferred to Amritsar from Gurdaspur.  `

 

1April 1869             Batala teshil was re-transferred to Gurdaspur District, as the arrangement  did not work satisfactorily

.

1866-1871..         From 1866 onwards,  Kukas were particularly active in their compaign against tombs,  graves and cremation  marks. The more ardent among them took law into their hands and committed several acts of aggression in some of the district including Gurdaspur . Some f them were arrested and awarded varying terms of imprisonment .

 

1869                     .. The famine of 1869 caused havoc in the district .

 

1870                  ..    The year 1870, ushered in an era of peasant indebtedness which

had      never been known in the country before . The elaborate legal system introduced by the British contributed toward the impoverishment o the peasantry   and the enrichment of money – lender and lawyers .   

1900                                .. The 16th Session of the Indian National Congress was held at Lahore in Which delegates from all over the Punjab including Gurdaspur District took part .

February 1907    ..     There was much unrest in the district . The immediate cause  of unrest Was of the Punjab Canal Colonies Act in February 1907 . It restricted the right to cut  Tree on their land . At the same time , the Government passed the Colonization of Government land ( Punjab ) Bill in February 1907 in order to enhance the rate of water supply from the Bari Doab Canal . All these measures were responsible for raising a political storm in the  Punjab .

 

1913-1915              ..             The Ghadar party with headquarters  at san Francisco ( U.SA ) was formedIn 1913 to liberate India by force . A large number of Ghadarites came to Indian  and many of them were able to reach  Punjab.  These revolutionaries exhorted the people to rise but not with much success

.

The Ghadarites were suppressed with a heavy hand. A large number of them  were tried  by special tribunals constituted under the defence of India Act , 1915 .A list of revolutionaries belonging to the Gurdaspur district tried and convicted  ,is given in the Appendix  at the end of  this chapter .

1917.                           The district Congress Committee ,Gurdaspur was formed in October, with Sheikh Mukhtar Ahmed Advocate ,as its President and Mehr Chand ,Pleader as Secretary . To begin with the number of the district congress Committee was 24,   which  increased In due course . The delegates of the District Congress Committee, Gurdaspur,  attended the provincial Political Conference held at Lahore in 1917 .

 

26 February 1918       The district Congress Committee ,Gurdaspur passed a  resolution of protest  against the Restriction of Habitual Offenders ( Punjab ) Act,  1918, on the ground  that this Act curbed individual liberty and placed entirely at the mercy of low-paid police and village official.

March 1919                . The Rowlatt Act ,passed in march 1919,  nvested the Government with Extraordinary powers to suppress any kind of political agitation. .A complete  hartal  was observed at Batala, Dhariwal,  Dinanagar, Gurdaspur,  Pathankot,  and Sujanpur,  while a partial hartal was observed at Aliwal,   Qudian and  Shoal against  the Rowlatt Act . protest meeting were held at Batala,   Pathankot and Gurdaspur.

 

11April 1919               The Deputy Commissioner, Gurdaspur assembled  all available member of the local bar in his court in the forenoon and discussed the situation of law and order.  In the evening a joint  meeting of the Hindus and the Muslims was held in the Arian Wali Mosque .

 

 

12 April 1919             A hartal was observed at Batala and Gurdaspur.

 

13 April 1919                         A Hartal was observed at Pathankot. At night, a meeting of Hindus and Muslims was held in the Jama Masjid during which a suggestion was made to raid the civil lines. The demonstrators took an extremely violent form after the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre at Amritsar on 13 April 1919.

 

13-15 April 1919                    During this period, telegraph wires were cut at a large number of places in Gurdaspur District.

14 April 1919                         The Government authorities issued orders under the Punjab Patrol Act for patrolling of railway lines in the Gurdaspur District. At Pathankot,  an attempt was made to damage the railway tract near the station.

 

16 April 1919                         On 16 April 1919,  a lighted torch was thrown at an English lady during riding in a motor-car at Pathankot. 

 

21 April 1919                         The Gurdaspur District was proclaimed under section 15 of the Police Act. The General Officer Commanding Amritsar and his moveable column arrived at Gurdaspur in the forenoon and in the afternoon General Dyer addressed a meeting of pleaders and local notables in the town hall.

 

22 April 1919                         Batala was visited by the movable column under General Dyer,  who addressed two meetings of the town people and the rural people separately.

 

Dhariwal was also visited by the moveable column under General Dyer,  who addressed a meeting of pleaders and local notables.

 

2  May 1919                           Nine persons were arrested at Gurdaspur under the Defence of India Act for attempting to create disaffection towards the government.

 

3 Augast 1920                        Public meetings were held at Gurdaspur in which Sir Michael O Dwyer's claim that the Punjab public supported his policy was severely repudiated due to the effect of the Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy and the martial law administration.

 

15 November 1920                Shiromani Gurudwara Prabhandhak Committee was set up by the Sikhs for the management of all Sikh shrines. Consequently, many gurudwaras of the district came under the control of Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee.

 

1920                                        No n-Co-operation Movement was started by Gandhi Ji in 1920 due to an alliance with the Khilafat leaders. Jallainwala Bagh Tragedy and Rowlett Act were also responsible for the starting of Non-co-operation Movement. Its programme, among other items including the renunciation of all government titles, the boycott of legislation, law courts and government schools and colleges. The people all over the country enthusiastically responded to the call of Gandhi Ji. The Government made every efforts to stop the movement and a large member of persons courted imprisonment.

 

There was a great response to the call of Gandhi Ji by the people of this district. A darbar at Dinanagar was held to discuss the situation created by Gandhi Ji by H. Harcourt, the Deputy Commissioner, Gurdaspur. Extraordinary meeting held on 3 December, 1920 by theGurdaspur District Bar Association passed a resolution making is incumbent on its members to refrain henceforth from accepting any work and appearing in the courts. The Deputy Commissioner discussed the matter with them in which he explained that he had no intention of and never meant to wound their religious and patriotic susceptibilities. In view of this, the said resolution of bycotting his court was dropped.

 

1921                                        Public meetings for the promotion of the Swadeshi (Indian made) Movements were also organised at Behrampur, Dinanagar and Pathankot in the district. A conference of weavers, carders and managers of Khadies of the district was organized at Gurdaspur, under the auspices of the local District Congress Committee. The main aim of this conference was to promote the uses of Swadeshi goods like Khadi cloth, woollen blankets, dhotis, turbans, handweaven clothes and bycott the foreign made goods. This had the desired effect and a large number of persons discarded their clothes made out of foreign cloth. 

 

February 1922                       Gandhi Ji called off the Non-cooperation Movement in February 1922 due to some incidents of violence.

 

29-30 April 1922                    A session of the Punjab Provincial Conference was held at Batala on 29-30 April 1922. One of the resolutions passed there declared the firm adherence of the conference to the Principles of non-violence and non-co-operation as the only means of attaining freedom and getting the Khilafat and Punjab grievances redressed.

 

26 January 1930                    26 January 1930 was declared the Independence Day. The National flag was hoisted and the Independence pledge was taken by the people at Gurdaspur and other places in the district.

 

8 June 1930                            A Ladies Congress Committee was established at Dinanagar and women were exhorted to take their proper share in the national struggle and be ready to suffer for the country. Thereafter,  women also began to participate in the Satyagrah Movement.

 

1934                                        The Second Civil Disobedience Movement was naturally subsided by the middle of 1934.

 

1939-45                                   The Congress refused co-operation in the World War II (1939-45) which was conducted on imperialistic lines.

 

November 1939                     The Congress ministries in different provinces resigned.

 

8 August 1940                        The Viceroy, Lord Linlithgow, made a statement on 8 August 1940 holding out the prospect of a representative constituent assembly after the war was over. This August Offer was rejected by the Congress and as a protest, Gandhi ji started the campaign of individual civil; disobedience. A good number of people in the Gurdaspur District singed the satyagrah pledge and their names were sent from time to time by the District Congress Committee,  Gurdaspur for approval of Gandhi ji.

 

January 1941                         The District Satyagrah Congress Committee was formed in early January 1941 to accelerate the enrolment of satyagrahis and enlist the sympathy of the masses. The people showed great enthusiasm and a good number of them courted arrests.

 

9 August 1942                        Gandhi Ji and all the members of the Congress Working Committee were arrested. The Indian National Congress was banned and its officers were taken possession of by the police. The British Government did all in its power to crush the Congress organization. A good number of persons were arrested in the Gurdaspur District.

 

1946                                        The results of elections were over-whelmingly in the favour of the Congress.

 

1 July 1947                             The British Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act on 1 July 1947.

 

15 August 1947                      Country attained Independence on 15 August 1947. The achievement of Independence was celebrated in the district with great enthusiasm. But it was marred by the communal riots and the exodus of minority communities from both sides of the border consequent upon the partition of the country.

 

On partition of Punjab in 1947, the whole of Shakargarh Tehsil of Gurdaspur District was transferred to Pakistan.

 

1960                                        An agreement was reached between the Government of India and Pakistan that the shifting of the course of rivers was not to effect the boundaries between the two countries. As a result of the demarcation, district gained and lost possession of certain chunks of land situated on both sides of River Ravi.

 

1966                                        The boundary Commission recommended the inclusion of pockets of Dalhousie,  Baloon and Bakloh in Himachal Pradesh and necessary provision was made in the Punjab Reorganization Act, 1966. These are as were transferred as such with effect from 1 November 1966.

 

                                                                                   


APPENDIX  !

       

                                    Ghadar  ( Rebellion ) of 1915

 

                         Revolutionaries belonging to the Gurdaspur District tried and convicted by Special Tribanals.

           

Name

Village

Penalty

                                                                                                                    

Person accused of the Second Lahore Conspiracy Case sentenced to trancsportation  for life with forfelture  of property

:

Udham Singh 

Thikriwala

------

              .                    

 

Person sentenced to various terms of imprisonment in the Second  Lahore Conspiracy Case

 

Sher Singh

Thikriwala

1 years ‘s rigorous imprisonment

 

Person sentenced to different terms of imprisonment in the Srigobindpur  Conspiracy  Case

 

Sher Singh

Thikriwala

7 Years

Rigorous imprisonment

Kesar Singh

do

3,,

Gundoo

do

3,,

Veer Singh

do

21,,

Puran Singh

Kot Todar Mal

21,,

Atma Singh

 Thikriwala

14,,

Santa Singh

 Bham

14,,

Labhoo

  Arjanpur

14,,

Munshi

Kot Todar Mal

14 ,,

Tehta

do

14,,

Dharam Singh

Bham

7,,

Kala Singh

do

7,,

Bahadur Singh

do

7,,

Bhagat Singh

do

7,,

Bela Singh

Thikriwala

7,,

 

           

                                               


CHAPTER   III

 

PEOPLE

 

Distribution of Population between Rural and Urban Areas

 

According to 1981 Census there are 11 town in the district ,viz ,Pathankot ,Batala, Gurdaspur, Qudian, Sujanpur, Dinanagar,  Dhariwall,  Fatehgarh Churian,  Dera Baba Nanak,  Sri Hargobind pur and Narot  Jaimal Singh .Among them 10 town are classified Municipalites  except Narot jaimal singh ,which is Notified  Area Committee . All these town accommodate 21.39 pre cent of the total population of the district . The following tables  give the distribution of population between the rural areas and  tahsils in the district according to 1981 Census .

 

Tahsil /District

Total Population

Males

Females

Rural

Urban

Gurdaspur District

15,13,435

7,93,484

7,19,951

11,85,167

3,28,268

Pathankot District

4,01,727

2,09,733

1,91,994

2,75,467

1,26,260

Gurdaspur Tahsil

5,51,704

2,87,844

2,63,860

4,86,885

64,819

Pathankot  Tahsil

5,60,004

2,95,907

2,64,097

4,22,815

1,37,189

(Census of India  , 1981 , Series -17 , Punjab , Part II, General population Tables , P 198)

 

Sex Ration ;-- According to 1981 Census ,the total  population of the Gurdaspur District was 15, 13,  435 out of which 7, 93, 484 were males and 7, 19, 951 were females, i.e showing ratio of 52.43: 47.57 against the ratio 52.90: 47.10 for Census .

As per 1981 Census, there were 907 females per 1.000 males against 879 females per 1,000 males in the state of the pnujab ,Gurdaspur District came next to Hoshiarpur District in the state of number of female per 1.000 males

 

Density of Population :

                                    The density of population of the district increased from 286 person per sq. km in 1961 to 425 in 1981 . It is higher than the density  of population of Punjab state  as a whole is 333 person per sq. km .The same trend  was noticed in all the tahsils of the district . Batala tahsi had the highest  density of population with 457 person per sq. km in 1981.  whereas the Gurdaspur Tahsil had the lowest with 413 person  per sq,  km . According to 1981 Census,  the district ranked fourth in respect of density of population afte Jalandhar (510 Person per sq. Km)  Ludhiana ( 472 person per sq ,km) and Amritsar (430 person sq .km ) district . The density of population of Gurdaspur District is given below .

 

Year

Density of population (  per sq. km)

1961

286

1971

345

1981

425

 

(Census of India  , 1981 , Series -17 , Pumjab , Part  II A and   Part IIB General population Tables  and Primary Census Abstract P. 25)

 

 

 

 

Growth of population

                                    The population of the Gurdaspur district as at the sunrise of 1 March 1981 was 15,13, 435 of which 7, 93, 484 were males and 7, 19, 951 were females.  The net addition to   the  population between 1971 and 1981 was  2,83,971 thereby recording  a decenntal  growth rate 23..10 per cent  during the decade as against the state growth rate of 23.89 per cent . The rate of growth recording during the previous decade 1961 -1971 was per cent. The table given under shows he population of the district from 1961 onwards with the decennial growth rates.

 

Year

Population

Percentage decade variation 

1961

9,80,868

 

1971

12,29,464

+25.34

1981

15,13,435

+23.10

 

( Census of India  , 1981 , Series -17 , Pumjab , Part  II A and   Part IIB General population Tables  and Primary Census Abstract P.  63 )

 

Distribution  of  population of Scheduled Castes

                        According to 1981 Census ,the population of Scheduled Castes  in the district was 3,58, 540 as against 2,67,110 in 1971 .

The following tables shows the tehsilwise  distribution of Scheduled Castes population in the district according to 1971 and 1981 census :-

 

District / Tahsil

1971

1981

 

Total

Males

Females

Total

Males

Females

Pathanot Tahsil

95,209

50,183

45,026

1,22,986

64,915

58,071

Gurdaspur Tahsil

96,556

45,859

40,679

1,17,133

61,900

55,222

Batala Tahsil

85,345

45,381

39,954

1,18,432

63,019

55,413

Total

2,67,110

1,41,423

1,25,687

3,58,540

1,89,834

1,68,706

 (Census of India  , 1981 , Series -17 , Pumjab , Part  II A and   Part IIB General population Tables,PP 168-169 , and Census of India, 1981, Series -17 , Punjab  Part II-A and Part II-B , General population and primary  Census Abstract , PP 198-199)

 

 

Distribution of population by Religion

                        According to 1981 Census,  the district has the largest number of Christians in the state  . The distribution f population of the district by religion to 1971  and 1981 Census is given below :

 

Population Classified by Religion

 

Religion

1971

1981

 

Total

Males

Females

Total

Males

Females

Sikhs

5,50,996

2,92,297

2,58,699

6,75,400

3,54,374

3.21,026

Hindus

5,90,290

3,11,143

2,79,147

7,28,362

3,80,748

2,47,64

 Muslims

6,868

3,540

3,328

9,362

4,927

4,435

Curistians

79,732

42,568

37,104

99,637

53,681

46,556

 Buddhists

35

22

13

52

25

27

 Jains

152

97

55

48

28

20

Other Religions

1

1

-

560

293

267

Religion not stated

1,175

614

561

14

8

6

Total

12,29,249

6,50,282

5,78,867

15,13,435

7,93,484

7,19,951

(Statistical Abstract of Punjab 1980 PP 62-65 and Census of India , 1981 ,Series -17 , Punjab , Paper I of 1984 , Household  population by Religion  of  head  of household  PP 12-15 )

 

 

Population of the town :

The population between rural and urban population in the district in 1981 was 78:22 approximately as against 80:20 in 1971. It indicates the general trend of population to  settle in the urban :areas.  The population of towns in the Gurdaspur District s given below :

 

 

 

 

Towns

1961

1971

1981

Pathankot

54,810

78,192

1,10,089

Batala

51,300

60,784

87,135

Gurdaspur

27,665

32,064

39,529

Qudian

11,502

13,119

15,804

Sujanpur

10,458

12,568

13,095

Dinanagar

9,599

10,607

13,078

Dhariwal

9,601

9,985

12,212

Fatehgarh Churian

6,439

7,590

9,372

Dera Baba Nanak

5,288

5,388

6,212

Sri Hargobindpur

2,341

2,430

3,215

Narot Jaimal Singh

1,809

-

2,660

 

(Census of India , 1981 , Series -17 , Pumjab , Part  II A and  Part IIB General population Tables  and Primary Census Abstract PP  116-138)

 

Villages Classified by  Population :-        

 

The table given below  show the number of the village classified by various ranges of population in   Gurdaspur  district according to 1971 and 1981 Census :  

 

Year

Total Numberof Village

Less than 200

200-499

550-999

1000-1999

2000-4999

5000-9999

10,000and above

1971

1526

267

539

457

195

64

4

-

1981

1551

228

465

499

267

85

7

-

 

( Census of India , 1971 and  1981 , Series -17 .. part II –A Punjab General  population  tables PP 86-89 and 74-77 )   

Fairs and Festivals

Fairs and Festivals reflect the cultural heritage of the people of the area and play an important role in their social  life. There is chain of fairs and festival ,all the year around the Sikhs, the Hindus, Muslims, etc.  The important fairs and festival celebrated in the district are Lohri,  Basant, Holi /Hola,  Basikhi,  Rakash Bandhan,  gurpurbs( birth and martyrdom  days of Sikhs Gurus) Janam Ashtami , Ram Naumi,Chirstmas, Dussehra, Dewali ,Independence Day and Republic Day .

 

            Basiakhi fair at Pindori Mahantam is the prominent fair celebrated in the district ,which attract a large number of visitor is described below :

 

Baisakhi Fair at Pindori Mahantan .-   Few fairs in Punjab are more spontaneous than Baisakhi . in the plains as far as the human eye can see, there is carpet of wheat crop and the  heart of the  Farmer vibrates in joy in response to the rustling of plants when their top bearing  ripe ears wave under the Influence of gentle breeze. The peasant sees the happy reward of his incessant labour of the past six month .Baisakhi is essentially a seasonal fair to the Sikhs it was on this day that Guru Gobind  Singh ordained the Khalsa Panth ( Order)

 

Basiakhi is observed at many places in the state .Pindori Mahantan is one among such places. It is an old dera of the Mahants, the management of which has passed  from Guru to his chela for generation .It is not Known since when the basiakhi Fair at Pindori Mahantan  is being celebrated . Some suggest that the fair was first held when Baba Narainji succeeded his Guru, Baba Bhagwanji about four centuries ago has been held year since then . The fair lasts for there days ,from 1st to  3rd Basiakh ,corresponding to 13 to 15 April .

 

The monastery was founded sometime in the regin of Emperor Jahangir ( 1605-1627) by  a famous Hindu saint , Bariagi Bhaganji, The saint belonged to the Vaishanava sect An interesting story connected with the founding of the shrine   is given below :

“ The propects of sort in the extensive marsh to which  Kahunwan gives its name attracted the Emperor Jahangir who made Frequent visit to this town . During one of these,  he first heard of the existence of the celebrated Bariagi, fakir  Bhagwanji and sought to make his acquaintance.  The Bairagi avoided the king by miraculously burrowing  through the ground to Pindori some 10 miles ( 16 km) off to the north,  and on the king following him up, he effected in a similar way his escape to Dhamtal across the Chakki in Kangra  In proof of the story .caves or rather holes in the  ground ,are shown at Kahnuwan and Pindori . On a sudsequent visit ,jahangir found Narain, the disciple of Bhagwanji ,at Pindori, but could get no answer from him since the Fakir was then under going a penance in consequence of which he was not allowed to speak . He therefore, took him to Lahore,  where seven cups of poison were, it is said ,administered to Narain a mere taste of which was sufficient to kill an elephant on the spot , but which caused him on hurt whatever. on Bhagwanji ‘s arrival, he explained matters to the Emperor  who was so amazed at the occurrence that he had a temple constructed at pindori, in the shape of Muhammand domed tomb, which still exists ,and endowed the shrine with grant of a jagir of Rs 20,000 .The deed is, it is said still preserved at the daughter shrine of Dhamtal, and there is no doubt that the tomb and grant were due to the  munificence of the Emperor

The main premises of the dera is fortified by a wall . All important building are inside the wall was an except the smadh of Baba Mahesh Dass . who was an illustrious disciple of Bhagwanji ,which is located on one side of the walled premises .Side by side with the smadh of Baba Mahesh Dass  lies the smadh  of his dog . who is said to have survived a dose 1  ¼  maunds of opium administered to it the Baba as a demonstration of his sptritual  powers. A well –laid-out garden surround these two smadhs.

The celebration start with a procession on the morning  of Baisakh  1 , carrying the Mahant in a palanquin .. The procession starts from the Naraini deorhi and is headed by the Barahamchairs of the Sanskirt school on a tastefully  decorated mare . people in large number accompany the procession which ends at baradari of the tank , After taking his bath ,the Mahant holds  nav-garha puja and makes charities in money, grains and a cow to the Brahamins and the poor .In people also take  bath in the tank in large numbers. There are separate arrangements for bath women .These ceremonies continue for about two hours after the completion of which the Mahant,s brought back in procession to Naraini deorhi . At about 3 PM ,sankirtan is held in which the Mahant also participates. Then he deliver a religious discourse. Thereafter ,he retires to his chamber and gives darshan  to his devotees there. 

 

 On the second and third day of the fair,  the pilgrims have holi dip in the tank . They also join the kirtan in the  temple where the mahant is present . After the kirtan ,the mahant retires to his chamber as on the first day and given audience to his devotess . Before their departure, the pilgrims pay their respect to the Mahant  and make offering of money and other articles to him   and he in return blesses them and gives them patashas as parshad .

The fair is attended  by a large number of village and has an  interesting  programma of folk songs,  dance and competition . A Nihang and his party may be seen  showing various feats of soldiery with their spears, swords and chakkars.  A large  number of people  witness such with great  interest . Lifting of jute bags filled with loose earth and of stones are other  competitions  which pose challenge for many a youugmen .  Those who are proud of their physical powers invite for competitions .

                                               

.

                                   


CHAPTER  IV

 

AGRICULTURE AND IRRIGATION

 

Agriculture  plays a vital part in the reconstruction of rural economy of a region .The economy of the district is agro based,  so any increase or decrease in agriculture  production directly affects its economy . In Gurdaspur   District, 55 .95 per cent of the   total working force constitutes cultivators and agricultural labourers.

  

Land Utilisation

The available land in the district is mainly used for agricultural  purposes  About 72 per cent of total area of the district is under cultivation.  The distribution  of land  according to utilization is given in the  following table :

 

 

 

Classificatiion of area by land use in Gurdaspur District 1972-73, 1977 -78 and 1982-83 to 1987 -88

 

Particulars

1972-73

1977-78

1982-83

1983-84

1984-85

1985-86

1986-87

1987-88

1 Total area according to village papers

350

350

350

350

350

350

350

350

2 Forests

16

16

14

14

13

13

13

13

3 Land not available land excluding current fallows

76

76

76

77

76

76

76

76

4                     Other cultivated land excluding current fallows land

-

-

-

-

-

(a)

(a)

(a)

5   Fallow lands

1 Current fallows

2. Other fallows land

 

-

-

 

-

-

 

-

-

 

-

-

 

-

-

 

-

-

 

-

-

 

9

-

6    Net area sown

258

258

260

259

261

261

261

252

7  Area sown more than once

118

161

177

178

190

191

206

212

8  Total cropped area (6+7) 

376

419

437

437

451

452

467

464

(Statistical Abstracts of Punjab , 1973, 1978 and 1982 to 1982 to 1988 )

Note:-  (a) denotes below 500 hectares

 

 

Area Irrigated by Different Sources of Irrigation --  Irrigation has been given top priority in country ‘s programme of planned development since 1951 . In 1987-88, the area irrigated by tubwell /wells and canals was 65.5 and 31.4 per cent ,reepectively   of the net area irrigated in the district . The major source of irrigation is , therefore , tubwells/wells  followed by canals .

            The following table shows the area irrigated  in the district from  different source of irrigated during 1972 -73 , 1977 -78 and to 1987 -88 :-

 

 

 

Net Area Irrigated  in Gurdaspur District during 1972-73 1977-78 and 1982 -83 to 1987-88

                                                                                                ( Thousand hectates )

Source

1972-73

1977-78

1982-83

1983-84

1984-85

1986-87

1986-87

1987-88

Government  Canals

50.1

65.4

55.6*

53.2*

59.8*

72.7*

42.4*

59.9

Private Canals

5.2

4.5

4.2

4.2

---

1.4

6.1

5.6

Tubewells and Well

85.2

98.1

104.2

83.1

119.7

109.4

137.0

124.7

 Other Sources

0.1

---

2.7

1.9

----

----

0.1

0.1

Total

140.6

168.0

166.7

142.4

179.5

183.5

185.6

190.3

 

( Statistical Abstract of Punjab , 1973, 1978 and 1982 to 1988 ) 

*Provisional

 

Canals : - Canals irrigated in the district is provided by the Upper Bari Doab Canals which was opened for irrigated in 1859 .It has four branches, viz, the Sabraon Branch . These branches provided irrigated to the tract lying in the Amritsar and Gurdaspur district.

 

The Following tables shows tahsilwise aera irrigated by the different branhes or Upper Bari Doab Canal in the district during 1972 -73 , 1977-78 , and 1982 -83  to 1987-88 :-  

 

Year

Gurdaspur Tahsil

Pathankot Tahsil

Batala Tahsil

Total

1972-73

70,652

14,130

68,841

1,53,623

1977-78

62,714

13,071

58,687

1,34,472

1982-83

57,213

14,709

50,319

1,22,313

1983-84

59,016

15,170

49,581

1,23,767

1984-85

60,915

15,693

49,756

1,26,364

1985-86

68,334

15,275

47,545

1,31,154

1986-87

57,390

15,789

46,203

1,19,382

1987-88

57,592

15,837

46,167

1,19,5

(Source : Superintending Engineer ,Upper Bari Doab  Canals , Amritsar ),

 

            Major and Subsidiary Crops .- Detalied particular regarding the area nder different crops,  ,their total production in the given in the  following tables :

 

                                    Area under Principal Crops in the Gurdaspur District

                                                                                                            ( Thousand  hectare )

Crops

1972-73

1977-78

1982-83

1983-84

1984-85

1985-86

1986-87

1987-88

Cereals

Rice

82

127

135

138

148

152

161

155

Jawar

0.1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Bajra

3.1

1.0

0.1

(a)

(a)

0.2

(a)

-

Maize

36

23

17

18

22

10

21

19

Wheat

152

169

191

196

198

196

201

199

Bately

4.5

2.4

1.1

0.5

0.4

0.4

0.5

0.5

Pulses

Gram

4

6

(a)

(a)

0.4

0.5

1.4

1.1

Mash

10.76

9.07

9.20

7.90

6.45

7.30

6.29

5.66

Moong

0.26

0.05

0.01

(a)

0.02

0.01

0.02

0.05

Massar

2.38

3.39

1.36

0.46

0.41

0.74

1.15

1.06

 Oil Seeds

Gronudnu

(a)

11.00

--

(a)

----

-----

---

(a)

Rape and Mustard

4.5

2.8

2.5

2.0

3.7

2.8

2.1

3

Seaamum

9.5

5.6

8.7

8.7

8.5

7.9

8.2

6.7

Linseed

0.9

1.0

0.7

0.4

0.5

0.4

0.4

0.6

Other Crops

Surgarcane

21

19

23

18

16.5

16.8

19.0

18.8

Potatoes

0.6

0.7

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.2

Cotton (American)

0.3

---

----

---

--

--

--

--

Cotton (Desi )

3.1

1.6

1.1

0.8

0.5

0.7

0.3

0.2

(Statistical Abstracts of Punjab, 1973, 1978 and 1982 to 1988)

 

Production of Principal Crops  in Gurdaspur District

                                                                                    ( Thousand  Metric Tonnes)

 

Crops

1972-73

1977-78

1982-83

1983-84

1984-85

1985-86

1986-87

1987-88

Cereals

Rice

134

293

329

367

410

411

433

342

Jawar

(b)

--

--

--

--

-

---

---

Bajra

2

1

--

---

---

0.2

--

---

Mazie

42

23

23

34

40

27

41

26

Wheat

306

389

496

541

621

643

510

627

Barely

3

3

1

1

1

--

--

1

Pulses

Gtam

6

7

( c )

( c)

0.2

0.4

1.0

0.5

Mash

4.51

3.9

3.8

4.0

3.7

4.1

3.4

2.6

Moong

0.10

--

---

---

---

--

--

---

Massar

0.86

1.5

0.6

0.2

0.2

0.5

0.7

0.7

Oil Seeds

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Groundunt

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

----

Rape and Mustard

2.5

1

2

2

2

3

1

3

Seaamum

3.5

2.0

2.4

2.7

2.7

2.8

3.3

2.1

Linseed

0.3

0.4

0.2

0.1

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.4

Other crops

Surgarcane

( Gur )

93

91

119

110

102

112

122

101

Potatoes

6.5

12.5

5.7

3.9

--

---

---

3.6

Cotton ( American )

0.3

---

---

---

---

---

--

---

Cotton ( Desi )

0.59

0.28

0.19

0.11

0.14

0.20

--

--

( Statisical Abstract of Punjab , 1973-1978 and 1983-to 1988 )

 

 

(a)     Denote below 50 tonnes                                                                                                                                                   

(b)               Denote below 50 tonnes

 

The following are the different  varieties of crops sown in the Gurdaspur District :-

 

Name of Crop

Varieties

Rabi

 

Wheat

WL-1562, sonalika PBW -120 , PBW-154 , PBW-138, PBW -34, WL-2265,HD-2329, HD-2009, 5308, PBW-65

 

 PBW-175, HA-2285,

(WL-2265, PBW-65 , PBW-175 , Rainfed  Varieties)

Gram Desi

C—214 ,GL -769, C-235

Kabuli  Gram

L-550

Barley

PL-56,DL-70, PL-172

Winter Maize

Partap ,Partap -1

Lentil

Massal 9-12,LL-56,LL-147

Toria

TL-15,TLC-1

Raya

RLM-198, RLM-514,RLM -619

Tara Mira

Improved Tara Mira Selection A ( ITSA )

Gabbi Sarson

Gabbi Starson Ludhiana -1

Linseed

 LC_185, LC-54

Sun Flower

Rumsun  Record

Kharif

 

Rice

IR -8, PR-10,6  PR -108, PR-103, Indiason Basmati 370,Pakistan Basmati , Permal

 

Maize Moong

Ageti 76, Navyot Partap  Sartaj  Prabhat Sathi Local

I Summer Moong

G-65, SML-32

2 Main Moong

ML-5,ML-131, ML, -267

Mash

 

1 Summer Mash

Mash -218

2 Main Mash

Mash-48,Mash-1, T-9

Arhar

T-21,AL-15

Cotton

G-27,ID-230,ID-327

Surgarcane

 

Sesamum

 

Co-operating Farming Societies – The umber of Co-operating farming societies in the district is given in the following tables :-

 

Year

Number

1972-73

87

1977-78

87

1982-83

87

1983-84

87

1984-85

87

1985-86

87

1986-87

87

1987-88

87

(  Statistical Abstract of Punjab , 1973-1978-1983 to 1989)

 

Agricultural Machinery and Implements : - The statistics  regarding the agricultural  machinery and implements in use in the district are given below :

 

Machinery and implement

Year

1972

Year

1971

(1) Plouhgs

1        Wooden

2        Iron

 

81,393

72,325

 

40,904

98,315

(2) Sugarcane

     (i)Worked by power

       (ii) Worked by bullocks

 

84

15,728

 

1,458

21,522

(3) Tractor

2,137

3,239

(4) Carts

7,743

9,139

(Statistical Abstract of Punjab,1978 and 1985)

 

Chemcial Fertillzers – The  use of chemical fertilizers has increased considerably in the past few years. It was 18,233 nutrient tonnes during 1972 -73 which increased to 84,587 nutrients tonnes during 1987-88. The following tables shows the consumption of chemical fertilizer in the Gurdaspur District,  during 1972-78 and 1982-83 to 1987-88 :-

 

Year

Fertilizer used

 

N

P

K

Total

1972-73

16,667

263

1,303

18,233

1977-78

24,263

4,834

2,343

31,440

1982-83

49,623

13,769

2,165

65,584

1983-84

56,285

14,270

2,713

73,268

1984-85

60,774

16,558

2,851

80,183

1985-86

62,508

18,761

2,218

83,487

1986-87

64,835

11,750

2,403

78,988

1987-88

61,515

21,051

2,021

84,587

(Source: Chief Agricultural Officer, Gurdaspur)

 

 

 Livestock

 

Animal Husbardry :- According to livestock Census conducted on various occasion,  the livestock in Gurdaspur District 1966, 1972 and 1977 was as under :

 

Particulars

1966 ( 00 )

1972 ( 00 )

 1977 ( 000 )

Cattle

3,444

3,723

358,6

Buffaloes

2,452

3,160

385.7

Horses and   Ponies

87

132

11.7

Donkey

20

20

3.0

Mules

12

26

2.7

Sheeps

260

426

25.9

Goats

287

372

34.1

Camels

2

2

0.1

Pigs

13

19

5.4

Others

---

--

---

Total

6,577

7,880

728.2

Poultry

1,662

3,028

430.7

(Statistical Abstract of Punjab , 1969, 1973 and 1986 )

 

 

 Forest :- The area under contral of the forest Department under the different categories in Gurdaspur district  during 1987-88 was as under :

 

Particulars

Area in Hectares

I Reserved  Forest

123.84

II Demarcated and undemarcated  protected Forest

11270.34

III   Protected forest

Rail Strip

Road Strip

Canal Strip

Drain Strip

 

881.4375

887.6680

4378.4005

1297.2210

IV Unclassed Forest

1784.85

V Area notified under Section 38 of India

Forest Act, 1927

166.33

Total

20790.0890

(Source:   Divisional Forest  Officer, Gurdaspur )

 

Forest Produce :- The income from sale of forest produce in the Gurdaspur District during 1972-73 to 1987-78 was as under :

(Rs)

Year

Major  Produce

Minor Produce

Other

1972-73

3,97,096

18,370

24,972

1977-78

15,40,593

82,458

1,30,898

1982-83

38,53,669

70,575

9,09,833

1983-84

28,70,228

32,085

44,14,495

1984-85

13,78,040

42,465

9,45,395

1985-86

17,69,169

24,210

11,49,654

1986-87

21,09,970

54,628

8,24,847

1987-88

19,81,632

2,36,329

7,15,212

(Source    Divisional     Forest Officer , Gurdaspur)

 

 Floods : -- Damage caused to crops and house  by heavy rains and floods in Gurdaspur District during 1972-73,  1978-79 and 1982-to 1987 are as under :

 

Year

Number of village  / towns affected

Area affected ( sq ) km

Human lives lost ( Number )

House  damaged ( number )

Damaged to Crops

 Area affected ( hectares

 Value ( Rs 000 )

1972

---

----

----

---

-----

----

1978

2

1

----

----

49

50

1982

---

----

---

----

---

---

1983

---

--

--

--

---

--

1984

---

---

--

--

--

--

1985

501

81

5

9,185

5,904

13,598

1986

191

81

4

4,713

8,062

6,800

1987

--

--

--

--

---

---

(Statistical Abstract of Punjab, 1973,1979 and 1983 to 1988 )

 

 

 

 

                                               


CHAPTER V

 

INDUSTRIES

In the  field of Industry,  Gurdaspur has not  been an important  district . during  1987-88,   the district had 649 registered working factories.  Their number under each category and workers employed thereint in the district for the year, 1987-88 is given below :

 

 

Serial No.

Name of Industry

Number of factories

Number of workers/persons employed

1

 Manufacture of Food Products 

114

3,079

2

Manufacture of Wool , Silk and Synthetic Fiber Textile

1

2,483

3

Manufacture of Wood and Wood Product Furniture and Fixtures

216

897

4

Manufacture of Paper and Paper Product, Printing, Publishing and Allied Industries

8

138

5

Manufacture of Chemical and Chemical  Products

2

150

6

Manufacture of Rubber Plastic and Petroleum

3

59

7

Manufacture  of Non-Metallic Mineral Product

8

165

8

Basic Metal and Alloy Industries

62

1,531

9

Manufacture  of Metal Products  and Parts except Machinery and Transport Equipment

24

353

10

Manufacture of Machinery and Machine Tools and Parts except Machinery

176

2,540

11

Manufacture of Electrical Machine Apparatus ,, Appliances Supplies and Parts

2

37

12

Manufacture of Transport Equipment and Parts

4

44

13

 Electricity

24

460

14

Retail Trade in Other

1

11

15

Repair Services

4

146

 

Total

649

12,393

(Source : Labour Commissioner , Punjab )

 

 

 Large and Meduim Scale Industries :--- The number of layer and medium – scalee factories in the Gurdaspur was 8 during 1977-78 . which rose to 11 in 1984- 85 . The list of large and medium –scales factories with their product and number of workers as on 31 March 1988 is given below  :

Serial No.

Name of  Factory

Year of starting

Number of workers

Product

1

Dharam Engineering Worker Co. GT Road , Batala

1945

80

C.L Casting  , and  agricultural implements

2

The Batala Co-operating Suger Mill, Ltd . Batala

1963

1,188

 Sugar

3

Punjab Khand Udyog Ltd , Suger  Mill , Village Paniar , Gurdaspur 

1980

731

Sugar

4

The State Co-operating Milk ,Producers Union ,Gurdaspur

1986

358

Milk Product

5

The British Indian  Corporation Ltd . (A Govt. of Indian Company)  New Engerton      Woollen Mills , Dhariwal , Gurdaspur

1880

3,884

Woollen clothes , Shawls , hosiery  garments , blanket , tweeds and woollen  hand knitting yarns

6

Punjab Khand Udyog Ltd . Distillery, Village Paniar, Gurdaspur

1984

42

Dentured spirit

7

 Partap paper Mills Ltd Village Shetpur , Tehsil Batala , Guraspur

1984

310

Paper

8

Rama Engineering Company , GT Road , Batala

1985

72

Rice bran oil and deoiled rice bran

9

 Baco Engineering Company , GT Road , Batala

1933

106

Wire rods , C.I  Castings, lathes. Planers and misc . components.

10

Rashtriya Engineering Works (Regd) GT Road , Batala

1953

150

C.I , Castings and agricultural implements

11

Atlas Engineering Industries Private Ltd . GT Road . Batala

1953

64

Machine tools and  casting 

12

Modgil Company , Kashmir Road , Batala

1984

18

Shaping  machine

13

Royal Foundry , Railway Road , Batala

1958

49

Machine tools, C.L  . Casting and structural fabrication

 

 ( Source : Director of Industries , Punjab )

 

 The number of registered working factories and number of workers employed therein , in the district for year 1972, 1977 and 1983 to 1988 is given below :

 

 Year

Number of  factories

Number of workers

1972

337

7,390

1977

418

9,388

1983

676

11,664

1984

618

12,247

1985

641

12,207

1986

640

8,049

1987

618

8,410