CHAPTER V

 

INDUSTRIES

(a)

Old time Industries and Industrial Development

(b)

State Aid to Industries

©

Industrial Training

(d)

Industrial Areas and Estates

(e)

Sources of Power

(f)

Growth and Development of Industries

(g)

Industries and Manugactures of the District

(h)

Role of Industrial Co-operatives

(i)

Labour and Employers Organization

(j)

Welfare of Industrial Labour Appendix

 

(a)       Old –Time Industries and Industrial Development

 

            For a long time, Amritsar has been one of the biggest trading centres in northern India. It was known for pashmina (the word pashmina has been derived from pasham, which means fine wool), silk goods, carpets and thick serge.

 

            The main reason for the development of Amritsar as a commercial center was its importance as the main seat of the Sikh religion. It drew pilgrims in large numbers from far and near. Amritsar, thus, provided a ready market for the Kashmiri goods, I.e. woolen shawls and silk. The goods of the Kangra and Mandy Hills also found their way here and were exchanged for the produce of the plains.

 

            Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s frequent visits to the city, too, gave an impetus to the trade of Amritsar, and the stationing of a good number of troops there created demand for manufactured goods. Amritsar came to be known as one of the leading commercial cities of the Punjab. The British also recognized the commercial importance of the city and connected it by rail and road. The importance of Amritsar as a center of brisk trade and commerce is more evident from the amount of octroi collected from Amritsar than that collected from Lahore (another important city of the pre-partition Punjab). During the time of Ranjit Singh, out of the total annual octroi revenue of the whole kingdom amounting to Rs.24,00,000 as much as Rs.7,00,000 was collected from Amritsar as against Rs.50,000 from Lahore.1

 

            Amritsar was not only a leading center of trade, it was also famous for its various industries. About 1833, quite a large number of famine-stricken Kashmiries settled here. They were adept in making woolen shawls. They brought with them instruments and techniques which greatly helped the local shawl industry to develop on sound lines. They used to manufacture from coarse wool, a sort of thick, warm serge which the Sikh horsemen wore in winter and during the rains. They also cleaned the shawls brough from Kashmir for export to other parts of India. Later, the Punjabi Muslims also took to pashmina-weaving. These weavers worked as apprentices with Kashmiries for several years, and became skilled. There was a large demand for shawls in various parts of the country. But, after the death of Ranjit Singh, the entire trade declined owing to political insecurity and indiscriminate taxation of the artisans of Amritsar. The shawl industry, too, could not escape this blow.

 

1V.N Datta, Amritsar Pass and Present, p.132

 

            Apart from the pashmina work, silk goods were also manufactured in Amritsar. Raw silk was imported from Bukhara and it was cleaned, sorted, carded and dyed at Amritsar and then exported to different places in India. Spun and artificial silks were imported from England, Japan, Italy and Switzerland. Later, on, wool also came to be imported from Bukhara via worth 3 lakhs of rupees. In old days, silk was considered to be a luxury and it was worn by princes, nobles and the rich.

 

            Amritsar was also known for carpet-weaving. With the development of the pashmina industry, the weavers also took to carpet-weaving which required inferior varieties of raw wool. The products were so skillfully designed that they became known far and wide. These were also exhibited in important exhibitions held in India and abroad. A large number of carpets were exported to England, the USA, France, etc. Towards the close of the nineteenth century, there were about 150 looms at work at Amritsar.

 

            Besides, the above industries, acids and other chemicals, soap, gold thread, silver thread, etc. were also manufactured in small quantities. Carving was done in ivory, wood and metal. Though not much, wood-carving was done at Amritsar and Tarn Taran. Utensils-making also formed as old and important industry of the district. One firm had also started the cleaning of cotton with machinery which was a new thing in those days. Jandiala Guru was famous for metalwares. Zinc ornaments were also made in rural areas for the poor people. About the beginning of the twentieth century, other industries, like the distilling of spirits, ice-making, printing of textiles, tanning and weaving also came into being.

 

            Power-looms were set up at Amritsar for the first time in 1919. These were operated, using the woollen yarn. In course of time, some wool-spinning mills also came into being. But, as the period from 1920 to 1933 was one of depression, the industry could not flourish much. In 1939, with the outbreak of the World War II, the industry got a great impetus, as the foreign imports stopped and the local market had to depend on indigenous production. With the achievement of independence in 1947, the industry got a further fillip and all-round progress was made.

 

            The partition of the country in 1947 gave a temporary set-back to the industries of the district, as it not only lost the skilled workers but also markets for the outlet of products. But soon after, the scarcity of labour was overcome by training the displaced persons who came from Pakistan. In order to rehabilitate these people, industry was considered to be the best means of employment for them. These people has great initiative and drive and lost no time in availing themselves of this opportunity to start small-scale industries. Some of them engaged themselves in the already existing industries of textiles, whereas some others started the manufacturing of paints, plastic goods and rubber goods. During the fifties, a large number of new industries sprang up and the already existing units expanded.

 

            In 1967-68, there were about 27 units in the large-scale sector and about 5,500 units in the small-scale sector, producing a large number of engineering goods, wood and machine screws, panel pins, textile machinery, printing and paper-cutting machinery, electric fans, chemicals and, above all, the textiles – woolen, silken, cotton, etc. In the production of woolen fabrics, like worsted, tweeds, blankets, shawls, etc. the district holds a prominent place in the country.

 

            The industries have developed either in Amritsar proper or in its suburbs. Most of these, especially textiles – cotton, woolen and silken – are at Chheharta and Verka. There are also a Government Milk Plant at Verka and a distillery at Khasa.

 

(b)       State Aid to Industries

 

            Amritsar has benn known for industrial progress. After 1947, the State Government recognized the importance of industries for the development of the State. It has offered all sorts of help and given various facilities. The Department of Industries, Punjab, gives financial assistance in the form of loans and subsidies and grants to the industrialists under the Punjab State Aid to Industries Act, 1935. The following table shows the amount of financial assistance granted to the industrialists in the district during 1963-64 to 1967-68:

 

Year

Number of units

Loans

Grants-in-aid and subsidy

Amount

(in lakhs of rupees)

(Rs.)

1963-64

136

2063

3825

1964-65

134

2.61

824

1965-66

321

29.97

3725

1966-67

177

9.37

6000

1967-68

156

5.46

1600

 

(Source: Director of Industries, Punjab, Chandigarh)

 

            Apart from the financial assistance rendered by the Government, the industries also got assistance in the form of loans from the Punjab Financial Corporation, Commercial Banks and Co-operative Banks against security.

 

            The other measures taken by the Government for the development of industries in the district are detailed below:

 

            (1)  Supply of Machinery on Hire-Purchase Basis:-  The National Small Industries Corporation is an institution started by the Government of India for the development of small-scale units in the country. It looks after the development of industries at the national level. It helps the small-scale industries to acquire machinery even on the hire-purchase basis and also helps to get raw materials for them. The cost of the machinery and equipment is to be paid by the units on easy installments.

 

            (2)  Supply of Raw Material:-  The State Industries Department provides facilities for the procurement and distribution of raw materials, e.g. copper and zinc, to the industrialists according to the fixed quota. It also helps to procure those raw materials which are required to be imported from abroad.

 

            (3)  Marketing Assistance:-  Marketing assistance if also provided to the cottage and small-scale industries. For this purpose, a number of emporiums have been opened by the State Government. Industrial exhibitions are also organized by the Government from time to time at suitable places for the display and disposal of products of the cottage and small-scale industries.

 

            (4)  Quality-Marketing Scheme:-  It was introduced during the Second Five-Year Plan (1956-61). Under this scheme, the manufacturers of various goods are provided either free or at very nominal charges the testing facilities, technical guidance, manufacturing data, etc.

 

            The need for introducing the Quality-Marking Scheme was felt in order to improve the quality of the products of the small-scale industries and to bring about uniformity which was lacking before this scheme. The Government started the scheme at its own level, because the small units were unable to install modern equipment for testing raw materials, semi-finished products, finished products, etc. Moreover, this step gave the third-party guarantee to the consumers.

 

            The following quality-marking centers have been set up in Amritsar under the Quality-Marking Scheme:

 

            (i)  Quality-Marking Centre for Textile Goods, Amritsar:-  Started in 1956, the centre provides technical assistance for the units in choosing the right type of raw material and in the quality-marking of the goods. The centre has a well-equipped testing laboratory, controlled by well qualified technical staff. The Controller of Stores, Punjab, gets tested from it before placing orders with the private units.

 

            The progress of the centre, during the five years from 1963-64 to 1967-68, is shown in the following table:

 

Year

Value of the quality-marked goods (in lakhs of rupees)

Number of parties registered under the Quanlity Marking Scheme

Number of tests performed

Value of goods tested for export (in lakhs of rupees)

1963-64

14.44

27

775

---

1964-65

23.09

40

1193

4.1

1965-66

25.09

25

3944

5.1

1966-67

19.70

13

3246

2.9

1967-68

27.4

2

2454

0.58

 

(Source: Quality-Marking Centre for Textile Goods, Amritsar)

 

 

            (ii)       Government Quality-Marking Centre for Engineering Goods, Amritsar:- To uplift the standard of engineering products and to provide them with technical guidance and testing facilities and also to make the producers and consumers quality-concious, the Quality-Marking Centre for Engineering Goods was started at Amritsar in 1967. The center has registered 35 units under the Quality-Marking Scheme. It also inspects goods on behalf of the Indian Standards Institutions. The laboratory of the center is well equipped with modern testing machinery. The center has also arrangements for testing water-meters and pumping-sets.

 

            In 1967-68, the center quality-marked goods worth Rs.2,02,237. The number of tests performed during that year was 5,386. As many as 1,156 units received technical guidance. The main items quality-marked include paper-cutting machines, paper printing machines, dog-chucks, etc.

 

            The center provides for technical assistance for improving the quality of engineering products through selection of raw materials and proper machines; providing drawings and tolerances, and testing equipments and gauges; and testing of finished and semi finished products; etc. The center is headed by a Senior Technical Officer, who is assisted by Technical Assistants and other staff.

 

            (5)  Common Facility Service Development Schemes:- The following centres provide technical assistance and common facility services for the various industries:

 

            (i)  Government Development Centre for Electrical Appliances, Amritsar:-  Established in 1963, the main object of the center is to uplift the decaying electrical and mechanical industry in the district. It provides technical and testing facilities for the small-scale industrial units. It is equipped with modern machinery, mostly imported. The center functions under a Senior Technical Officer, who is assisted by technical and administrative staff.

 

            The progress of work done by the center, during 1964-65 to 1967-68, is shown in the following table:

 

Year

Processing charges realized

(Rs)

Value of goods processed

(Rs)

Number of units to which technical assistance rendered

Number of tests performed

1964-65

517

17000

88

555

1965-66

7684

121000

712

1350

1966-67

12089

215000

1200

7902

1967-68

6193

92280

1093

8524

 

(Source: Director of Industries, Punjab, Chandigarh)

 

            (ii) Heat-Treatment Centre, Amritsar:-  The Centre renders useful service to the industrialists. The service rendered by it, during 1964-65 to 1967-68, is given below:

 

 

Year

Processing charges realized

(Rs)

Value of goods processed

(Rs)

Technical assistance rendered

Number of tests performed

1964-65

2148

6000

---

---

1965-66

19193

80000

---

---

1966-67

---

---

---

---

1967-68

5813

102000

55

3000

(Source: Director of Industries, Punjab, Chandigarh)

 

(6)  Other Organisations for Development of Industries:-  Besides the above-mentioned common facility service development centres, there exist the following organizations for the promotion of industries in the district:

 

            (i)  Amritsar Local Productivity Council, Amritsar:-  It is one of the 47 Local Productivity Councils formed by the National Productivity Council (which was established by the Government of India in February 1958) to generate the productivity. The Amritsar Local Productivity Council, Regional Directorate, Ludhiana. It is tripartite organization having members from among the employees, employers, governmental and professional organizations.

 

            The council arranges conferences, talks, training courses in the fields of business, commerce and industry; carries out audio-visual programmes, productivity survey, implementation service, etc. The main aims of the council are to improve the productivity and quality and to cut down wastage. To start with, the council provided these for industries only. But now it has extended its area of operation to the agricultural productivity and fuel efficiency. All industrial units, organization, trade unions, educational institutions, research institutions, other institutions, individuals, etc. can become the members of this council.

 

            The council’s office at Amritsar conducts training programme on subjects, such as material management, marketing management, marketing research, installation and operation of a system of cost and budgetary control programme evaluation and review techniques, work study, production planning, controlling of personnel management, industrial relations, supervisory development, etc.

 

            (ii)  The Punjab State Small Industries Corporation Ltd., Chandigarh:-  The Punjab State Small Industries Corporation was set up as a plan scheme under the Third Five-Year Plan. It started functioning towards the close of 1962. The objectives of the corporation are to aid, counsel, assist, finance, project and promote the interests of small industries in the State. Its main functions comprise the procurement, shortage and distribution of all categories of industrial raw materials, whether imported or indigenous, e.g. ferrous and non-ferrous metals, coal, molasses, yarn, oil, dyes and chemicals. Besides, it distributes raw materials to those units, whose names are recommended by the Director of Industries, Punjab, through its offices opened in various towns. The Corporttion’s office was established at Amritsar in July 1968. It distributed raw matrials worth Rs.43,85,761 during 1968-69.

 

2The remaining eight Local Productivity Councils are established at Ludhiana, Batala, Jullundur, Sonepat, Faridabad, Jaipur, Srinagar and Delhi.

 

(iii)  Small Industries Service Institute, Ludhiana:-  Set up by the Government of India in 1956, the Small Industries Service Institute has its regional office at Ludhiana, which has jurisdiction over the States of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh and the Union Territory of Chandigarh. The scope of the industrial extension service provided for by the institute includes technical counseling, trading, preparation and distribution of technical literature in the form of technical bulletins, drawings and designs, and economic information service. The industrial management advice, marketing and the rendering of common facilities in the workshop and laboratories of the institute, and its Extension Centres are also included in its scope.

 

As a result of the efforts of the institute, the quality and the finish of the goods produced by several industrial units in the district have improved.

 

(iv)  Mechanical Engineering Research and Development Organisation, Ludhiana:-  The headquarters of the Mechanical Engineering Research and Development Organisation are at Durgapur (West Bengal). It has three centers,3 one of which is at Ludhiana. The centre at Ludhiana was established in December 1965 in order to provide for regional centers at the focal point of the concentrated engineering industries in the country to assess their research and development needs and provide for engineering technology, which is not otherwise available to them. Since this centre has been set up to meet the requirements of the north-western regions, it also renders facilities to the engineering industries at Amritsar.

 

The plan and programme at each centre are formulated under the guidance of a Scientific Committee appointed by the Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur. The Committee for the Ludhiana Centre is headed by the Technical Adviser, Government of Punjab, Chandigarh.

 

The main objective of the organization is to render help to the industries in removing their technical difficulties and to establish sound production practices with an acceptable quality of products.

 

(c)   Industrial Training

 

            In a developing country such as India, the need of industrial training can hardly be exaggerated. With a view to providing employment to the released military personnel with avenues of employment, an industrial training programme was initiated in India after the World War II (1939-45). Under this programme, the Government of India established industrial training institutes in various parts of the country to impart training in various trades, e.g. black smithy, wiremanship and steel-metal.

 

3The three centers of the Mechanical Engineering Research and Development Organization in the country are : Poona in the west, Ludhiana in the north-west and Madras in the south.

 

            After 1947, the concept of establishing industrial training institutes under-went a considerable change. It was realized that industrial training was necessary not only for creating employment opportunities, but also for supplying trained personnel to the industries of the country. This step led to an all-round expansion in the training programme.

 

            The industrial training programme in the Punjab also received an impet us under the Government of India’s programme. The Department  of  Industrial Training, Punjab imparts industrial technical and vocational training to boys and girls through its various industrial training institutes and schools.

 

            There are three Government Industrial Training Institutes in the district at Amritsar, Sirhali Kalan and Patti. These institutes provide training for the students in engineering and non-engineering trades, as detailed in the following statement:

 

 


Government Industrial Training Institutes in the Amritsar District

 

 

Serial No.

Name and location of the institute

Year of establishment

Course/ craft in which training is imparted

Seating capacity

Duration of the training course

Minimum qualifications required for admission

Commencement of the session

1.

Industrial Training Centre, Dayanand Polytechnic Institute, Amritsar

Originally started in 1948, it was taken over by the Punjab Government of India in November 1956

1. Welder, Carpenter, Motor Mechanic, Painter, Moulder

148

1 year

Middle

August

 

 

 

2. Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Machanic

32

Ditto

Matric

Ditto

 

 

 

3. Fitter, Turner, Wireman

144

2 years

Middle

Ditto

 

 

 

4. Electroplator, Electrician

32

Ditto

Matric

Ditto

 

 

 

5. Electrician

96

Ditto

Matric with science

Ditto

 

 

 

6. Draftman (Civil), Surveyor, Mechanic Radio and Television

64

Ditto

Matric with science and mathematics

Ditto

 

 

 

7. Stenography (English)

32

1 year

Matric with English

Ditto

 

 

 

8. Book-binding, cutting and tailoring, hand composition and proof reading, printing machine operator

64

Ditto

Middle

Ditto

 

 

 

9. Stenography (Punjabi)

16

Ditto

Matric with Punjabi

Ditto

 

 

 

10. Stenography (Hindi)

16

Ditto

Matric with Hindi

Ditto

2.

Industrial Training Institute, Patti

1963

1. Mechanic Tractor, Moulder, Carpenter, Plumber

96

1 year

Middle

August

 

 

 

2. Fitter, Turner, Machinist (Compositor)

112

2 years

Middle

Ditto

 

 

 

3. Electrician

32

Ditto

Middle with science

Ditto

 

 

 

4. Stenography (Punjabi)

16

1 year

Matric with Punjabi

Ditto

3.

Industrial Training Institute, Sirhali Kalan

1963

1. Blacksmith, Carpenter

64

Ditto

Middle

Ditto

 

 

 

2. Fitter

32

2 years

Middle

Ditto

 

 

 

3. Electrician

32

Ditto

Matric with Science

Ditto

 

 

 

4. Surveyor, Mechanic Radio and Television

64

Ditto

Matric with science and mathematics

Ditto

 

 

 

5. Stenography (English)

32

1 year

Matric with English

Ditto       

 

(Source: Industrial Training Department, Punjab, Chandigarh)


Besides the above- mentioned institutes, there are three Government Industrial schools for Girls at Amritsar, Jandiala Guru Rayya which impart training in tailoring, cutting, needle work and embriodery. The Government Industrial School for Girls at Amritsar runs also the one-year teacher’s training course.

 

There are also three private recognized Industrial Schools for Girls at Amritsar, viz. Dayanand Polytechnic, sital Industrial School  and R.B. Girdharo Lal Industrial School for girls, which impart training to the girls in various trades.

 

The other institution which impart technical instruction in textile and garment technology, located at Amritsar, are: the Government Institute of Garment Technology and the Punjab Institute of Textiles. These institutions are meant for boys only.

 

(i)  Government Institute of Garment Technology, Amritsar:- Established in 1937, the institute imparts trainig to the matriculates in Cutting and tailoring Diploma Course of three year’s duration. It was upgraded to the level of National Trade Certificate Course in 1968 and was affiliated to the State Board of Technical Education, Punjab, Chandigarh. The institute runs the following courses:

 

(1)   Diploma in garment Technology ( 3 year’s course) for matriculates and above.

 

(2)  National Trade Certificate Course in Cutting, Fitting and Stitching Garments (one year       course) for middle pass and above.

 

In the above courses, 21 per cent seats are reserved for the Scheduled castes candidates, who are also awarded a stipend of rS. 45 per month. Scholarships/ Stipneds of Rs.25 each per month are also awarded to other students on poverty-cum-merit basis. No tuition fees are charged. Hostel arrangements are also exist in the institute for the students coming from outside.

 

(ii) Punjab Institute of Textile Technology, Amritsar:- the institute was established in 1920 with a view to imparting technical instruction in textile technology and to produce technicians in order to help and develop the textile industry. It runs a 3 year’s diploma course of National Certificate Standard, duly recognized by the Director of Industries, Punjab, Chandigarh, and the Government of india.

 

This institute impart intensive and extensive training in spinning , weaving technology and its allied subjects, e.g. drawing, design, dyeing, finishing, mail- planning, administration, motion study, trade economics, lobour laws and legislation. The number of students on the rolls of the Institute in 1967-68 and 1968-69 were 85 and 72 respectively.

 

(d) Industrial Areas and Estates

 

The scheme for the establishment of industrial estates was launched in the State in 1959. The Urban Industrial Estate at Amritsar was established during the third Five- Year Plan to provide suitable accommodation for the various industrial units. These estates has constructed 50 sheds for housing small scale units. Out of these,35 sheds have already been allotted to small-scale units. A large number of industrial units in the district are situated at Chheharta on the Grand Trunk Road and extended upto Khasa, which is about 14 Km from Amritsar. On the Batala Road, the industrial units extended up to Verka.

 

There are three Rural Industrial Estates in the District, established by the Industries Department, Punjab, at Ajnala, Kathunangal and Lopoke. These estates have 8 sheds each.

 

(e) Sources of Power

 

Power is the most important factor in the economic development of a region. The sources of power in the district are electricity, diesel oil, petrol, crude oil and coal. Slowly and steadily, electricity is replacing the other sources of power. After the independence, gigantic programmes of execution of multipurpose river-valley projects were launched and electricity came to be known as an index of the measure of prosperity in any region. More and more people started discarding the age-old manual processes, used both in agricultural and industrial production.

 

Amritsar was electrified for the first time in 1916, when the Municipal Committee, Amritsar, obtained a licence to generate electricity. Diesel-generating or steam-generating sets were installed in the Municipal Power-House. This system continued up to 1932-33, when it was replaced by hydro-power, obtained from the Verka Grid Substation and converted in D.C.

 

The Punjab State Electricity Board now feeds the whole of the Amritsar  District which is divided into four divisions,viz. East Division, Verka ; Tran Taran Division, Tran Taran Division ; West Division, Amritsar ; and Jandiala Guru Division; Jandiala Guru. There are about 14 Operation Subdivisions in the district.the power to most of the Amritsar municipal area is supplied through the Amritsar Municipal Committee Power-House which obtains power in bulk from the Punjab State Electricity Board . part of the power, thus obtained, is converted from A.C. into D.C.

 

(f) Growth and Development of Industries

 

Much before the rail and road communications developed, Amritsar had grown into a prominent commercial centre. It was regarded as a flourishing trade centre of northern India for the shawls and saffron on Kashmir and for other commodities. It was also the intention of the founder of this city, Guru Ram Das, that the people coming for a pilgrimage should devote themselves to the development of trade. With the foundation of the Golden Temple in the seventeenth century, greater stress was laid on the development of trade and, as such, a number of market were developed around the temple and, up to this day, these markets have not lost their significance.

Gradually, the traders of Amritsar developed a bussiness acumen which enabled them to try new experiments. In Amritsar, the textile industry gave a lead to other industries. The shawl industry got an impetus during the regime of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. A large number of shawls were exported to various European Countries. Similarily, the silk industry was also developing. The World War I (1914-18) gave a fillip to the industries of the district and a large number of these were set up to meet the demand of the Defence Department. The World War II (1939-45) gave  further fillip to the industrialfzation of Amritsar. Thereafter, the Amritsar industries developed on a sound footing. By 1947, apart from textiles, silken, and rayon and cotton- certain engineering and chemical industries were also set up. Though the partition of 1947 gave a set-back to the industries owing to the migration of skilled labourers, yet the position was retriveved by training up the refugees who migrated from Pakistan. The post-partition era showed a tremendous progress in the development of industries, though a period of about seven years after the partition was on e of fluctuating fortunes and vicissitudes for the local industry.

 

Between 1955 and 1965, over 10 crores of rupees are said to have been invested in the various industries in the district. Amritsar occupies the top position in the manufacture of printing-machines and paper-cutting machines. The important industries working in the rural areas are handloom-weaving, leather-tanning, shoe-making, ban-making, rope-making, cotton-ginning, etc.

 

(g)   Industries  and  Manufactures  of the District.

 

            The present day industries in the district may be categorized into three broad heads, viz, large-scale industries, small-scale industries and village industries. A few industries, which fall partly in the large-scale sector and partly in the small-scale sector, have been dealt with among those in the large-scale industries. The particulars of the different industries, viz, the number of units engaged, the annual production and the average employment during 1962-63 to 1967-68 are given in the Appendix on pages 218-225.

 

 

(i)                Large-Scale Industries

 

Textiles.__  This is the most important industry of the district and is mainly located in

the Amritsar city. It is said to have been established towards the close of the nineteenth century. At that time the main products of the industry were pashmina and daryai which were made from wool and silk respectively. Before the World War I (1914-18), the industry did not make any substantial progress, but the war gave it a fillip owing to a heavy demand for textiles. The first power-loom was installed in Amritsar in 1919. Later on the Swadeshi Movement started by Mahatma Gandhi also gave an impetus to the industry and a few handlooms were installed. Then came the depression of 1929-33 which hit the Amritsar industry as a whole and the textile industry was no exception. The World War II (1939-45) again gave it a fillip. But the partition of the country caused a great set-back to the industry as it was deprived of a large number of skilled workers and of markets. However, it soon retrieved its position.

 

            The textile industry fabrics manufactured from wool, cotton and rayon art silk. Out of these, the most important is the manufacture of the woollen cloth, and after this comes the cloth manufactured from silk rayon and artificial silk.

 

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