(ii) Soils and Crops

Patiala District consists of five main physiographical dvisions; viz. sand dunes, alluvial terraces plains, floodplains of Patiala Wali Nadi and Choa Nadi floodplains of Ghaggar and dissecting rolling plains in the north. The general slope of the district is from north east to south west. The highest attitude to 280 M above mean sea level in Rajpura in the north - east and lowest is 237 M above mean sea level in Samana in norht-west. There are serveral chos in the northern part of the district, most important are Patiala Wali Nadi and Choa Nadi all draining to the river Ghaggar. The present material of the district is alluvial originated from the sedimentary beds from the Shivalik.

Soils. - The soils in the sand dune area are sandly to loamy sand in texture with low available moisture capacity 2.3 to 5.0 cm/100 cm profile. Soils in the intersunal plains are relatively heavier (sandy loam to sandy clay loam) with moderare available moisture capacity 4.8 to 18.0 cm/100 cm. The soils in the leveled plains are characterized by loam to clay loam texture occasionally heavier profiles with claytexture are observed locally . Low lying areas in these terraces are salt affected.

††††††† The soils in the old channels of Patiala Wali Nadi and choa Nadi are very fine textured (clay and silty clay) and they contain lot of shrinking and swelling type of clays. These areas also experienced seasonal flooding resulting in high water table and are mostly salt affected. The soils of the Ghaggar floodplain are variable in texture. The soils of the river sand bars are sandy and those of the surrounding floodplains are generally sandy loam to silty clay loam in texture. The stratified soils are calcareious in nature.

†††††† The soils in the undulating plains ( near the Shivalik) are having 2-15 per cent slope and are sandy loam to loam in texture. These soils are susceptible to erosion by chos during monsoon season.


Physico--Chemical Characteristics

††††† The district of Patiala consists of nine developmental bocks, viz. Bassi Pathana, Rajpura, Dera Bassi, Sirhind, Nabha, Patiala, Ghanaur, Bhuner Heri and Samana. The soils samples received in Soil Testing Laboratory, Ludhiana show that the soils of all the developmental blocks are normal with respect to salf contents of soils and there is no salinity problem in the cultivated areas of the district.

†††††† With respect to soil alkalinity, the percentage of normal soils varies from 53 (Nabha Block) to 91 ( Dera Bassi Block) . The marginal soils which are having PM value 8.7 to 9.3 varies from 8 ( Dera Bassi Block) to 40 ( Nabha Block) per cent. There are some alkaline soils also and these are having PM value more than 9.3 and needs reclamation with the addition of gypsum. The percentage of alkaline soils varies from nil( Bassi Pathana Block) to 7 ( Nabha Block).

†††† The organic carbon ( which is an index of available nitrogen) content of the soils of the district is low to medium and most of these soils need a heavy nitrogen fertilization for an excellent crop production. About 60 per cent of the cultivable area is having low organic carbon status (0.4 per cent) organic carbon status.

†††† The available phosphorus, content of the soils varied a lot because of the additionof phosphatic fertilizers for crop production. The percentage of soils samples falling in low available phosphorus (5 KgP/acre) category ranges from 12 ( Bassi Pathana Block) to 58 ( Dera Bassi Block) . The percentage of soil samples falling in medium available phosphorus (5-9 Kg p/acre) ranges from 16 ( Dera Bassi Block) to 32 ( Bhuner Heri Block) . The percentage of soil samples falling in high category ( 9 Kg p/acre ) varied from 17 ( Samana Block) to 56 ( Bassi Pathana).

††††† Most of the soils of the district are medium to high in available of potassium status and do not require any addition of potassum fertilizers. The percentage of soils samples falling in low available potassium category (55 kg K20/ acre) ranged from 2 ( Bhuner Heri and Bassi Pathana Blocks) to 16 ( Samana Block) . The percentage of soil damples falling in medium available category (55--135 kg K20 / acre) ranged from 20 ( Rajpura Block) to 70 ( Samana Block) . The samples falling in high category ( 7, 135 K20 / acre) ranged from 14 ( Samana Block) to 75 ( Rajpura Block) per cent.

†††† Major and Subsidiary Crops.----- There are two main harvests, the rabi ( hari) or spring harvest and the Kharif ( sawani) or autuman harvest,. The rabi crops are sown in October --November and harvested from mid--March to mid--May. Late sowing of some HYV . e.g. wheat(MDM 1553, WG--377) and Barley (C--64) are also sown up to December. The kharif sowings take place from June to August and harvesting lasts early September to late December. Sugarcane and cotton are countedamong the autumn crops though sown earlier. The cultivation of some crops fall in classed as zaid kharif crop and melons which are harvested late in June, are among the zaid rabi crops.

††††††† The principal rabi crop is wheat, while monor ones or subsidiary crops are barley, gram, oilseeds(sarson, taramira, alsi and torial ) and winter vegetables such as peas , cabbage, cauliflower , turnip, carrot , etc, The principal kharif crops are paddy , sugarcane, cotton and ground nut , while maize , jowar and bajra are minor crops. kharif vegetables include tomato and ladyfinger, kharif pulses are maily moong, mash arhar, soyabeen, etc: while grapes, pear , peach, guava, etc. are the kharif fruits grown in the district.

†††† Detailed particulars regarding the area under different crops and their total production in the district from 1981--82 to 1988--89 are given in Appendix I and II at the end of this chapter. The important kharif and rabi crops are described as under:



††† Among foodgrains, wheat is the most important rabi crop of the district . It is the staple diet of the people and is generally sown in early November. Itis harvested between April and May.

†† With the improvement in irrigation facilities, the area under this crop in the district has increased from 286 thousand hectares in 1980- 81 to 321 thousand hectares in 1988-89 . During1988-89 , the district produced 1,249 thousand metric tonnes of wheat. The farmers in the district have in general adopted High Yielding Varieties (HY V), the cultivation of which permits late sowing upto the month of December.


††††† Paddy is an important kharif crop of the district. Incresed irrigation facilities, and heavy rains and floods resulting in waterlogging , have contributed to the increased cultivation of this crop. The area under this crop in the district during 1980-81 was 191 thousand hectares, which increased to 254 thousand hectares in 1988-89 . Consequently , production of this crop has also gone up from 44 thousand metric tonnes to 778 thousand metric tonnes. Its nursery is sown in May and June and transplantation is done at the end of the June and in the begining of July. It s harvesting season is October- November.


†††† Maize is yet another major kharif crop of the district. It is consumed mostly in winter. It is sown in irrigated Lands. Hybrid varieties have found favour with the farmers. The production of the crop in the district during 1980-81 was 27 thousand metric tonnes which decreased to 13 thousand metric tonnes in 1988-89 . The reason for decrease in production is that the area under maize cultivation has progressively been diverted to paddy cultivation . The area under maize cultivation during 1988-89 was only 20 thousand hectares as against 27 thousand hectares in 1980-81.



It is also a kharif crop of the district. It is sown in early July when summer rains set in and is reaped in October-November . Production of the crop in the district was 1.6 thousand metric tonnes in 1980-81 and in 1988-89 became 0.7 metric tonnes. The area under bajra cultivation in 1980-81 was 1.2 thousand hectares which decreased to 0.8 thousand hectares in 1988-89 due to diversion of area in favour of high-yielding varieties.



It is a rabi cereal sown from October to early January and harvested in early April. It requires less water than that required by wheat. with the improvement in irrigation facilities, the area is being diverted to other remunerative crops and as such the area under the crop has decreased from 8.4 thousand hectares in 1980-81 to 2.8 thousand hectares in 1988-89 . The productin also decreased from 16 thousand metric tonnes to 8 thousand metric tonnes.


Pulses are the main source of protein in the rood. The pulses grown in the district are gram, mash, moong, arhar and massar. Gram is an important cash crop and occupies large area like other major crops of the district. The area under gram cultivation in the district was 12 thousand hectares during 1980-81 which decreased to 1.5 thousand hectares in 1988-89.


Groundnut, rape and mustard , linsed and sesamum are the oilseeds grown in sandy loam and clay loam types of soil. The area under groundnut gradually decresed from 14 thousand hectares in 1980-81 to 1.2 thousand hectares in 1988-89 . The production of this crop in the district, during 1980-81 was 18 thousand metric tonnes, which came down to 1 thousand metric tonnes in 1988-89.


Cotton is a major Kharif cash crop sown all over the district. It has two varieties, viz. Americn and desi. Desi cotton is more popular than Amricn , because American cotton cannot stand heavy rains and rough weather as the desi cotton can. Moreover , there has been no substantial difference the yield of Americna cotton and desi cotton.

††††† The area under cotton in the district, during 1980-81 was 19.6 thousand hectares, which declined to 9.3 thousand hectares in 1988-89.

Sugar cane

†††† Sugarcane is one of the major cash crops of the district. It is grown all over the district. During 1980-81,the area under sugarcane was 8 thousand hectares which produced 41 thousand metric tonnes of gur. During 1988-89 , the area under sugarcane marginally fell to 8.4 thousand hectares. However , the production of gur increased to 51 thousand metric tonnes due to high yielding varities.



Barseem is an important green folder crop of rabi. It is sown during the last week of September and first week of October. It is highly nutritious fodder and keeps on growing after repeated cuttings throughout the winter and early summer seasons. The crop gets ready within 60 days after sowing.

†††† Chillies and potatoes are also grwon in the district. During 1988-89 , the area under chillies and potatoes was 0.61 thousand hectares and 2.7 thousand hectares, respectively. The district occupies top position in the State in the production of chillies.


Vegetables.---- There is an ample scope for incresing the prodution of vegetables in the district, because agro-climatically, it is suitable for the production of almost all the vegetables. The total area under vegetables, excluding chillies in the district during 1988-89 was 7,083 hectares . The following vegetables are grown in the district:

Winter Vegetables:†† Cauliflower(phul gobhi), cabbage (Band Gobhi) potato(alu) , turnip (shalgam), carrot (gajar), radish (muli), spinach (palak), fenugreek (methi), onion (piaz) garlic (lassan), capsicum (shimla mirch) and peas (matar).


Summer Vegetables: Lady finger(bhindi), bottle-gourd (ghia kaddu), ash-groud (petha), pumpkin (halwa kaddu), brinjal round and long (baingan), tomato (tamatar), musk-melon(sarda kharbuza), bitter gourd (karela), sponge -gourd (ghia), water melon (tarbuz), chillies (mirch), arum (arbi), sweet-potato (shakarkandi), long-melon( tar) and squash melon(tinda).


(iii) Set-up and Activities of the Horticulture Department

†††††††††† Prior to 2 May 1979, the horticultural activities were being looked after by the Agriculture Department at the state as well as the district level. Keeping , in view the importance of horticulture in the economy of the state, a seprate department of Horticulture was created on 2 May 1979.

†††††††††† The horticulture activities in the Patiala District are being after by an Assistant Director, Landscape, who functions under the administrative control of Director of Horticulture, Punjab, Chandigarh . In the performance of his duties, he is assisted by 1 Horticulture Development Officer, 11 Horticulture Inspectors,5 Horticultural Sub-Inspector, 1 Superintendent, 1 Accountant, besides other miscellaneous Class iii and Class iv staff.

†††††††††† The main function of the Horticulture Department in the district are as under :

(i) †††††† Helping site selection, soil testing, water testing and layout of orchards and arrangement of fruit plants,

(ii) ††††† Educating the fruit growers regarding right and proper use of all horticultural operation in their orchards such as training, pruning and spraying of orchards,

(iii) †††† Grant of 50 percent subsidy on plant materials, garden tools, insecticides and pesticides,

(iv) †††† Advancement of long term loans through coomercial banks for establishing new orchards and nurseries;

(v) ††††† Beautification of public places by arranging ornamental plants,

(vi) †††† Training in fruit and vegetables preservation through community canning centre.

†††††††††† The following demonstration-cum-nursery centres are functioning in the district, which are looked after by Horticulture Department for the improvement of fruit varieties :

†††††††††† (1) Baradari Garden and Landscape Nursery, Patiala. --Baradari Gardens of Patiala are maintained by the Horticulture Department, Punjab. The existing plant material is the produce of flower nursery of this unit.

††††† Flower nursery is well stocked with several varieties of ornamental plants. About 40 varieties of roses are propagated here which are sold to the flower fans. In addition, seedings of annual are also raised for sale.


(2) Government Garden and Fruit Nursery, Patiala.---- It comprises five unts, viz, Nihal Bagh Bhupindra Kothi, Old Guest House, Fruit Nursery and Bhedpur. The total area under this unit is about 100 acres. Bhupindra Kothi and Nihal bagh are well known for dusehri and langra varieties of mango in the country. In addition , peach, grape, litchi and guava plants are also propagated in this unit.


(3) Government Garden and Nursery, Nabha.----- It comprises six units, viz: Garden Mai Desan, Garden Malkan wala,Guest house and Pacca Bagh. Its total area is about 58 acres. The main fruits being propagated here are, lichi, pear, peach, grapes and guava.


(4) Aam Khas Bagh, Sirhind.----- This is a landscape unit of the Department as well as tourist spot which is jointly manged by the Department of Horticulture, Punjab and Punjab Tourism Corporation. It is situated on GT Road, about 2 Km from Fatehgarh Sahib. This unit has outstanding varieties of loquat,mango grafted and seedling.


(5) Government Garden and Nursery, Bassi Pathana.--- This unit consists of 25 acres and is situated at the link road from Bassi Pathana to Sanghol. Pear and peach fruit Plants are propagated here. This unit is also used as progeny orchard for multiplying good quality nursery fruit plants with its material as scion wood.


(6) Government Garden and Nursery ,Wazidpur.-- This is a 25 acre unit situated on the Patiala-Sangrur road about 1 km from the main road. The main fruits being propagated here are ber, peach, guava and cirtus.


(7) Government Garden and Nursery , Dhingi. ---This is also 25 acres unit, where peach and pear plants are propagated. This unit is exclusively meant for good quality scion wood material serving as a progeny orchard.


(8) Government Fruit Preservation laboratory, Patiala.----This laboratory is located in the Baradari Garden, Patiala ,where fruit products of different kinds like squash, juice, jam , etc. are prepared and sold to the public on 'no profit no loss' basis.

††† Community Canning Scheme is also in operation to train the aspirants for different fruit and vegetables products preparation . These products are also prepared on 'custom basis' on nominal charges.


(9) Mushroom Spawn Laboratory and Demonstration Farm, Patiala -For the benefit of mushroom growers of the district, a spawn producting laboratory is functioning from where a good quality mushroom seed is available.

††††† A demonstration is also held every year to provide a technical know-how to the mushroom growers. The produce of this farm is also sold on concessional rates to develop dietic-taste among the mushroom lovers.

†††† On 31 March 1989,3,009.68 hectares of land was inder horticulture in the district.

(IV) Farmer's Training Camps.----- The scheme for Farmer's Training was introduced in the district in March 1972 alongwith other districts of the state. It is centrally sponsored scheme. The main objectives of the Farmer's Training Camps are to give a fillip to the agricultural production and to popularise multiple croopping by involving large number of farmers in the high Yielding varieties Programme . The training camps are held at district/block/village level at the start of the cropping season. The extension staff and progressive farmers are given training in seminars which are attended by experts of the Punjab Agricultural University and Agriculture DepartmentPunjab. Practical demonstrations in respect of seed treatment, drill sowing and optimum/efficient use of fertilizers are also given at these camps. The agriculture Department Punjad and other simlar organisations orgaised†† 180 village level and 18 block leevel camps in the distct. Besides , 6 demonstraions , 9 farmers discussions ,77 Production -cum -demonstrationsand 43 demonstration plots werearranged . (v) Rural Development Agency, Patiala. -the dis trict Rural Development Agency, Patiala came into exis -tenceonlApril 1980 which replaced the Small farmer' s Development Agency and marginal farmer' s and agricultural Ladour agency (SFDA and MFALA).the main odjects of the Rural Development agency are to identify the eligidle small farmers / marginal farmers and agricultrallabourers in rural areas of Patiala District, having yellow cards; to investigte and identify their problems; to formulte programmes to tackle the problem fo targets group to devise ways and means to implement various schemes to prepare schemes providing employment to the people of weaker sectuon to implement TRYSEM schemes; to implement income supplementary schemefor the eligible persons; to arrange meetings with banks and others for credit arrangements for the beneficiaries; to release the capital subsidy on completion of the project and monitoring & evaluation work arrangement.

The Rural Development Agency, Patiala granted loans worth Rs 236.77 lakhs during the year 1988-89 to 4,910 beneficiaries.


(vi) Agricultural Co-operatives - The Co-operative Movement seeks to project the agriculturist both against economic evils and moral degeneration. The theory of co-operation is, that an isolated and powerless individual can, by association with others and by moral development and mutual support obtain credit and other material advantages beyond his reach, if he works independently. In other words, co-operation emphasises the importance of self-reliance and mutual help for preventing material and moral deterioration of the downtrodden of the society.

The Co-operative Movement in India started with the passing of the Co-operative Credit Societies Act of 1904. The Act provided only for the formation of agricultural credit societies in the rural areas. Special stress was laid on rural rather than urban credit in view of the greater importance of the former in India. There was a repid growth in the number and activities of the Act of 1904 was found insufficient to meet the growing needs of the movement. The Co-operative Societies Act of 1912 was, therefore, passed which recognized three kinds of central societies in addition to the primary societies recognized by the Act of 1904. The Act also recognized co-operation in the field other than credit.

Primary Agricultural Credit/Service Societies.-These societies play a significant role in increasing the agricultural production , advancementof short -term loans through village co-operatives and long-term loans for agriculture through the primary land co-opeative mortage banks . During 1988-89 , loans amounting to Rs 3,335 lakhswere advanced by these societies in the district.

††††† The major objectives of the primary agricultural credit service societies are to supply agricultural credit, distribution of essential consumer commodities , provide storage and marketing facilities and loans for light agricultural implements and machinery.

†††††† In 1988-89 ,there were 495 co-operative agricultural credit socities in the district with a membership of 1,49,849.


Agricultural Co-operative Marketing Societies

†††† Marketing is an art especially in the case of agricultural produce. The marketing of farm products should be so systematic, scientific and well organised as to enable the farmer to get a fair share of the value of his produce. For this purpose, agricultural co-operative marketing societies are functioning at different places in the district. Besides providing marketing facilities, these societies make arrangements for the supply of agricultural necessities and consumer articles in the rural area.

††††† At the State level, there is the Punjab State Co-operative supply and Marketing Federation (MARKEED), wholesale societies at the district level and marketing societies at the market level.

†††† In 1988-89, there was 9 agricultural co-operative marketing societies in the district, with a total membership of 7,096 (971 societties and 6,935 individuals). These society marketed produce worth Rs 484.80 lakhs during the year.

Other Societies

†††††††††† Besides the above, there are a number of other co-operative societies in the agriculture amd allied fields. Their number in the district in 1988-89 was as under :

Serial No.†††††† Type of Societies††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Number(1988-89)

1††††††††††††††††††† Housing Societies†††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 87

2††††††††††††††††††† Labour Societies††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 41

3††††††††††††††††††† Milk Producer Societies††††††††††††††††††† 472

4††††††††††††††††††† Industrial Societies†††††††††††††††††††††††††† 478

5††††††††††††††††††† Irrigation Societies†††††††††††††††††††††††††† 2

(Source : Deputy Registrar, Co-operative Societies, Patiala)


Co-operative Farming Societies

††† Co-operative farming is in a sense, an extension of the concept of joint-family system to agriculture. It is a xompromise between collective farming and peasant proprietorship and has all merits of large-scale farming without abolishing private property. It implies an organisation of farmers on the basis of common efforts for common interests. Under this system, all landowners in the village form a co-operative society for cultivating the land. The land is pooled, but each farmer retains the right to property. The produce is distributed among the members in proportion to the land and labour contributed by each. The produce is distributed among the members in proportion to the land and labour contributed by each. They are allowed to withdraw from the co-operative farm, whenever they so desire.

†††††† In 1988-89, there were 84 co-operative farming societies in the district, with a membership of 1,192.


(vii) Progress of Scientific Agriculture - There are two methods for increasing the agricultural production, i.e. by bringing more land under the plough, called extensive cultivation' or by putting more inputs in the land called 'intensive cultivationí. Since land is a scarce factor, it has its own limitations. Therefore, for increasing the agricultural production, intensive cultivation has to be adopted. It consists of adoption of scientific methods in cultivation, provision of better seeds and improved agricultural implements and use of chemical ferilizers, etc. A few of these are discussed below :


Agriculture Implements

†††††††††† This is one of the tools intensive cultivation for increasing agriculture production. The Department of Agriculture, Punjab, has been giving demonstrations and educating the farmers as to how to make use of improved agricultural implements. To train the farmers in successful operation of improved agriculutral implements, a scheme for demonstration of the implements has been introduced in the district under the Intensive Agricultural Development Programme.

†††††††††††††† The persian wheels were not only used in this district but throughout the State. But it has been replaced by the tube-wells and pumping -sets. Similarly, the mechanical method of using power thresher, operated withtractors or small motors and the harvest combine has almost completely replaced and the threshing of wheat under the feet of bullocks. Likewise precision machines, such as seed drills, seed-cum-fertilizer drills, corn planters, etc. are being adopting by the farmers for sowing their crops. The old type of agriculture implements still in vogue in the district are cotton drill, thirphali, S S plough, disc harrow, seed-cum-fertilizer, drill, wheel hand hoe, sickle, etc. All out efforts are being made by the Agriculture Department and Punjab Agricultural University to make the modern agricultural implements popular through the mass media, i.e. radio and television and through the field staff who personally contact the farmers.

†††††††††† The number of tube-wells and pumping-sets, etc. in the district was 94,648 in 1985-86, which increased upto 1,00,378 in 1986-87. Likewise tractors are also becoming very popular because of its multipurpose use. Their number in the district increased from 13,302 in 1980-81 to 26,682 in 1988-89.

†††††††††† Seeds.-- One of the basic input for increasing the agriculture production is good quality seed. The Government of India has laid down norms according to which a seed should be replaced after 3-4 years. To intensify the seed suply to the farmers, the State Government has set up Punjab Seed Corporation and the State Seed Certification Authority. Besides, a number of schemes have been introduced to provide seed, seedlings and plants to the farmers which give higher yield. The National Seed Corporation and a number of private agencies also assist the farmer in the supply and distribution of various types of seeds.

†††††††††† The Punjab Improved seed and seedlings Act, 1950 provides for the use of pure seeds and seedlings recommended by the department of Agriculture and makes it incumbent on the cultivator in any notified areas to use only improved varieties of seeds stored by the authorised agents.

†††††††††† Seed Farms.-- There are three seed farms in the district, viz. Tarain Seed Farm, Bara Seed Farm and Shamsher Nagar Seed Farm. Tarain Seed Farm which is spread over 50 acres is located near Dakala in Patiala Block. Wheat and paddy crops are generally grow at this seed farm. Bara Seed farm is in an area of 23 acres,2 kanals and 6 marlas. It is located near Sirhind. Paddy wheat and oilseed crops like gobhi sarson and sun-flowers as well as toria are grown at this farm. Shamsher Nagar Seed Farm is in area of 25 acres, 2 kanals and 8 marlas. It is also located in Sirhind Block. Wheat Paddy and oilseed crops like gobhi sarson toria and arhar are grown at this farm.

†††††††††† High Yielding Varieties.-- High yielding varieties of crop sown in the district are given below :

†††††††††† Wheat:††††††††† WL 711, WL 1562, WL 5023, HD 2009, WG 357, ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Sonalika, KSML-3

†††††††††† Rice ††† :††††††††† IR 8, PR 106, Jaya, Basmati

†††††††††† Maize†† :††††††††† Ageti 76, Ganga No. 5, Vijay

†††††††††† The area under high yielding varieties of wheat, paddy and maize during 1988-89 was 320 thousand hectares, 246 thousand hectares and 5 thousand hectares, respectively.

†††††††††† The percentage of area under high yielding varieties to the total cropped area in the Patiala District for wheat, paddy and maize during the year 1982-83 to 1988-89 is given below :

Name of crop††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Year

†††††††††† 1982-83†† 1983-84†† 1984-85†† 1985-86†† 1986-87†† 1987-88†† 1988-89

Wheat100††††††††††† 100†††††††† 100†††††††††† 100††††††††† 100††††††††† 100†††††††††† 100

Paddy95†††††††††††††† 94††††††††† 100†††††††††† 98††††††††††† 95††††††††††† 95††††††††††††† 97

Maize 80††††††††††††† 64††††††††††† 60††††††††††† 65††††††††††† 57††††††††††† 27†††††††††††† 39

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ( Source : Chief Agriculture Officer, Patiala )

†††††††††† Crop Rotation - Crop rotation is another measure of increasing the fertility of soil. Farmers adopt crop rotation according to the type of soil. This rotation differs from district to district.

†††††††††† The crop rotation followed in the Patiala District is paddy -wheat-cotton-wheat.

†††††††††† Fallow Cultivation - Although this is also a measure of increasing the fertility of soils, the method of fallow cultivation is slowly waning. In 1988-89, only 10,000 hectares were left as fallow land in the district. The area under fallow land is falling due to the adoption of scientific, increasing use of chemical fertilizers and decrease in per capita holding on account of the increasing load of population.

†††††††††† Fertilizers and Manures.-- After every harvesting, the soil loses its fertility and becomes deficient in certain nutrients such as nitrogen phosphorus and potassium. To make good this loss of nutrients, the application of fertilizer become essential. Application of these inputs are essential to improve the fertility of the soil.


Chemical Fertilizers

†††††††††† The important nutrients required by crops in abundant quantities are nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Chemical fertilizers are applied to the soil because it becomes generally deficient in on eor more nutrients. This helps in raising the fertility of the land. To know the deficiency of the particular nutrients of the soil of a particular area, MARKFED and Agriculture Department have set up laboratories at various places where the farmer can get the samples of soil tested and apply that chemical fertilizer in which it is found deficient.

†††††††††† The following table shows the use of chemical fertilizers in the district, during 1981-82 to 1988-89 :-

†††††††††† Year †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Fertilizers used

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ( '000' nutrients tonnes)

†††††††††† 1981-82††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† -

†††††††††† 1982-83††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† -

†††††††††† 1983-84††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 100

†††††††††† 1984-85††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 109

†††††††††† 1985-86††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 112

†††††††††† 1986-87††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 115

†††††††††† 1987-88††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 117

†††††††††† 1988-89††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 119

†††††††††† ( Statistical Abstracts of Punjab, 1984 to 1989 )


Local Manurial Resources

Rural Compost and Cattle-Dung Manure.-- Compost is a very useful organic manure for increasing fertility of the soil. It contains micro-nutreients in addition to major nutrients which are most essential particularly for high-yielding varieties.About 50 per cent of compost in the rural areas is wasted as fuel in the form of dung cakes since the farming community is not fully aware of its importance . It consists mainly of vegetable substances mixed with animal dung and urine. It, therefore , contains all the elements present in the plant itself and provides an appropriate additive to the soil for restroring the ingredients removed from it by the crop. In view of the importance of this manure, Government has launched a compaign to make the best use of farm yard manure and other wastes. The East punjab Conservation of Manures Act, 1949 (1950 Amendment), provides for the setting up of manure conservation committees and empowers the State Government to notify particular areas for the purpose of conserving manure and makes it incumbent on cultivators to take such measures as may be necessary for the purpose. The rural compost scheme was made permanent in the State in October 1966. The rural compost prepared inthe district, during 1980-81 to 1988-89 is given below:


Green Manuring:---- Green manuring is a method of improving fertility by adding nitrogen from plants direstly into the soil. This practice improves the soil texture by the addition of human or organic matter. Further, it creates better conditions for the increase of useful bacteria in the soil. The water holding capacity of soil also increases. The locally popular green manure crops are guara or cluster been dhaincha and saun hemp.

††††††† The scheme for the extension of green manuring in the State was introduced in April 1961.The total area under green manuring in the district, during 1980-81to 1988-89 is given below:


Town Compost.----- Urban wastes are a potential sources of plant food ingredients . The Town Compost Scheme was introduced in the State in 1944. Under this Scheme, all town wastes are collected and allowed to decompose in trenches, yielding organic manure of high quality of town compost prepared by the municipalities in the district, during 1980-81 to 1988-89 , is giver below:

††††††† Sullage Utilization. ---- The water as well as the plant nutrients and organic matters supplied by sewage or sullage is highly useful for almost all crops. The benefit derived nutrients and organic matter supplied by the sevage. It is easily available for field in the vicinity of towns.


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